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D 5007 016270 

California State Library 



4 b 



c*529.5 The Alta California almanac 
AA-6 and book of facts. 
1870 





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(■•^TAIN-IN(; 

A full ami authentic <'.< ndui- i'or 1870 ; 

Bcll»*ei »t' liie Year ; Tttoalur and i aiming 

•la:,mf>il, ln>.^ udi'lal source.-, of ihe Agricultural 

Product • of *£i<lg ; .Sketch of our Eocal Industrie,* ; Official 

KetMriiH of Election* of September and October, 18«!); Eiut o* 

United State*, State and City and County Executive, Judicial and E* 

Mu'i've Omcer* ; Domestic Export s : Oold W.vpori. ; Internal 

Revenue Collections; Rain Fall of neven years; El»t of 

Presidents and Vice President* since formation of 

Federal Constitution; Schedule of Slump Duties ; 

Tr . taction* of Enhor Exchange ; etc., etc. 



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OPEN" FOR VISITORS ALL THE YEAR. 

Si.xty-fotir Miles from San Francisco — Time, 3 1-2 Hours. Twenty- j 
two Miles to Vallejo, by Steamboat, and Forty-two by Rail. 

FOUR H ERS, BY RAILROAD, FROM SACRAMENTO. 



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The Mineral Waters, composed of Sulphur, Iron, Magnesia and 
Salts, are not to be Excelled. 

Turnpike Road to the Geysers, IS Miles ; To Clear Lake, 3© Miles ; 
To Healdslmrg and Russian River, 23 Miles. 

Table Kept on the Restaurant Plan: Pay only for What You Order. 



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Some of the diseases to the cure of which it is especially 
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Cures Cholera, Cholera-Morbus, Diarrhoea, Bloody Flux 
In One Day. 

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PREFACE. 

In commencing the publication of the Alta Califoknia Almanac 
and Book op Facts, the publishers stated it as their intention to 
make it a reliable work of reference for all classes of readers desirous 
of obtaining information of the past and present of our young and 
flourishing State. The many high encomiums it has received from 
agents, by letter and otherwise, is evidence that it has fully met this 
expectation. The present volume goes beyond any of its predecessors 
in the quantity, scope, and quality of its matter. Everything relating 
to the material products of California is embodied in tabular or para- 
graphic form. The statistics relating to our agricultural, horticultural 
and farming interests generally, are of the latest and most reliable 
kind. They were obtained from the Surveyor General's office, at Sac- 
ramento. All the other local statistics are also from official sources. 
In addition to this kind of matter, so useful in a work of reference, 
there will be found much that is instructive in the arts, the sciences, 
and on kindred subjects — the whole constituting the little volume a 
valuable addition to the counting-house, the country store, the public 
library, and the private family. So great has been the success of the 
two first volumes, that the publishers are enabled to present this to 
the public at one-half the former rates. It will thus widen the field 
of its circulation and increase the number of its readers and patrons — 
objects which must prove equally gratifying, and, it is to be hoped, 
mutually advantageous to all parties concerned. 



COKKECTTOTffS. 

The necessity of stereotyping and electrotyping the pages of this Almanac, as fast as 
they were pnt in type, prevented the announcement of certain vacancies, elections and 
appointments to office which have since been made. We insert them, so far as ascer- 
tained, as follows: 

SENATORS. 

Georgia < 

Term Exrares. 
Homer V. M. Miller Marnh a. 1N71 






In the State of Maine, Lot M. Morrill has been elected to fill the place of Win. Pitt 
Fessenden, deceased. 

Virginia. 




1. * Alfred E. Buck. 

2. "Charles W. Buckley. 

3. "Robert S. Heffin. 

1. * Julius Strong. 

2. * Stephen W. Kellogg. 

Third District 




REPRESENTATIVES. 

Alabama , 

4. "Charles Hays. 

5. rCox. 

6. fSherman. 

Connecticut. 

3. *H. H. Starkweather. 

4. fWm. H. Barnum. 
Illinois. 

, *H. C. Burchard. 




Kentucky. 


1. tLouis St. Marten. 

2. "Lewis A. "Sheldon, 
8. fAdolph Cailey. 


Louisiana. 

4. fMichael Rvan. 

5. fGeo. W. McCranie. 

Massachusetts. 




North Carolina. 




South Carolina. 








Tennessee. 


1. "Richard S. Ayer. 

2. * James 11. Piatt. 

3. -Charts H. Porter. 


Virginia. 

5. Robert Ridgway. 

6. Wm. Milnes, Jr. 

7. Lewis McKenzie, 



4 Geo. W. Booker. 8. J. K. Gibson. 

State at Large Joseph Scgar. 



The fo'lowing gentlemen have been appointed and confirmed United States Circuit 
Judges : George F. Staepley. of Maine, First Circuit : Lewis B. Woodruff, of New York, 
Second : Wm. McKennan, of Pennsylvania, Third ; William B. Woods, of Alabama, Fifth ; 
S. L. Witney, of Michigan, Sixth ; Thomas Drummond, of Illinois, Seventh : and John 
F. Dillon, of Iowa. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Assessed Value of Property, Etc 86 

Beet Sugar - 63 

Birds in California 92 

Cal endar for 1870 , 10 

California State Officers 28 

County Clerks 29 

Congressional Districts 33 

California Labor Exchange 56 

Calistoga Springs 77 

California Borax 81 

Cuba 91 

Cause of Consumption 92 

Cycles 8 

District Judges 83 

Domestic Exports 57 

Distances between Principal Pacific Ports 72 

Deep Sea Soundings 91 

Early History of California 82 

Eclipses in 1S70 , 8 

Equinoxes and Solstices 8 

Eaeter Table 9 

Export of Treasure from San Francisco 37 

Foreign Consuls Residing at San Francisco 37 

Finances of tho State 59 

Fall of Rain in San Francisco 71 

Fixed and Movable Festivals 8 

Government Land Measure '. 69 

Human Strength 55 

Hebrew Calendar 9 

Industrial School 35 

Instructive Truths 54 

Internal Revenue Collections 60 

Internal Revenue Affairs 62 

Imports, Free and Dutiable, etc . ^ 68 

Magnetism and Trade "Winds 53 

Morning and Evening Stars 8 

Number of Grape Vines, Gallons of Wine and Brandy, produced in California in 1868 68 

Officers of U.S. Government 22 

Officers of U. S. Supreme Court 22 

Our Navy 61 

Official Aggregato of California Productions for 1868 66 

Official Election Returns of S.F. City and County for September 1, 1869 73 

Official Returns of Judicial Election of October 20th, 1869 75 

Population of the World 36 



CONTENTS. 



Presidents and Vice Presidents of the U. S. since the formation of the Federal 

Constitution : » 53 

Public Lands and Pensions 58 

Receipts of Treasure and Treasure Exports 52 

Ramie 63 

Senators and Representatives in the 41st Congress 22 

San Francisco Municipal Government 28 

Senators and Assemblymen in the 18th California Legislature 31 

State Judiciary 33 

San Francisco Courts 34 

San Francisco Manufactories 38 

Schedule of Stamp Duties 44 

St. Maur's Estimate of Human Life 54 

Statistics of Transactions in Real Estate in S. F 61 

Silk 67 

Sorghum Cane 67 

State Prison Deficiencies 67 

The Public Schools of San Francisco 35 

The Influence of Forests 42 

The First Recorded Great Earthquake 43 

Tourists Route to Yosemite Valley 43 

The Age of the Human Race 52 

Table of California Grain Statistics for 1868... 64 

The Floral Isles 71 

The Tea Plant 71 

The Future of California 74 

The Great Overland Railroad , , 79 

Telegraphic Key 80 

The Mariposa Big Trees 89 

The Onion a Disenfectant 93 

Wheat Measurement 68 

What California has Accomplished 70 

Woolen Mills and Woolen Fabrics 78 

We Must Manufacture More 41 

White Pine 88 



* A great many paragraphs containing instructive information in Art. Science, His- 
tory, etc., will be found scattered through the Almanac und Book of Facts, which it has 
not been thought proper to include in the Index. 



THE ANATOMY OF MAN'S BODY, 



A8 GOVXBNED BY 



THE TWELVE CONSTELLATIONS, 

ACCORDING TO ANCIENT ASTROLOGY. 



THE TWELVE SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC. 



T 

8 

n 



SPRING SIGNS. 

Aries, or Ram. 
Taurus, or Bull. 
Gemini, or Twins. 



SUMMER SIGNS. 

Cancer, or Crab. 
Leo, or Lion. 
Virgo, or Virgin. 



Arms. 

n 

Heart. 

a 

Reins. 

Thighs. 
t 

Legs. 



Head and Face <y> 




tikggij 


m^ 


^♦|^ 


m^ 


SffipfiL^? Inyjjk ^^^ 




X^ jO^|i4^f ^ 


"5*«?X f 


r 1 M »'T§llgf\ R> 


Wii # ^f/^^iN^ ^ 


^sU 1 


^ \rf 




Jk"~^^P^ 


H^ ^ ^ 


-^" 



Neck. 
8 

Breast. 
25 

Bowels. 

Secrets. 
"I 

Knees. 
V5 



Feet x 



AUTUMN SIGNS. 

7". s£k Libra, or Balance. 
8* h^ Soorpio, or Scorpion. 
ft f Sagittarius, or Archer. 



WINTER SIGNS. 

10. VJ Capricornus, or Goat. 

11. £? Aquarius, or Waterman. 

12. X Pwc«*, or Fishes. 



The first six are called Northern Signs, and the other six Southern 
Signs. / 



Almanac calculations by WM. Schmolz, San Francisco— given in Mean ' 



ECLIPSES IX 18'?©. 

In the year 1870 there will be six Eclipses, four of the Sun and two 
of the Moon. 
I. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, January 17th, in Asia and Europe ; 
invisible in the United States. 
II. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, January 31st ; invisible in America. 

III. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, June 28 ; invisible in America. 

IV. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, July 12 ; invisible in the United 

States ; ending just before the Moon rises. 
V. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, July 28 ; invisible in the United 

States. 
VI.. A Total Eclipse of the Sun, December 22 ; invisible in the United 

States ; visible in the South of Spain, Algiers, Sicily, Greece and 

Turkey. 

MSEB AJD MOVABLE FEST2VAES. 



Septuagesima Sunday. . . .Feb. 13 

Sexagesima Feb. 20 

Quinquagesima Feb. 27 

Ash Wednesday March 2 

Quad r agesima S unday . . March 6 

Mid-Lent Sunday March 27 

Palm Sunday April 10 

Good Friday April 15 



Easter Sunday April 17 

Lone Sunday .April 24 

Rogation Sunday May 22 

Ascension Day May 26 

Pentecost Sunday June 5 

Trinity Sunday June 12 

Middle of Year July 2 

Advent Sunday Nov. 27 



EQUIXOXES AND SOESTSCES. 

Vernal Equinox March 20 I Autumnal Equinox Sept. 22 

Summer Solstice June 20 Winter Solstice Dec. 21 



CYCLES. 



Dominical Letter B 

Epact 28 

Solar Cycle 3 

Golden Number 9 



Roman Indiction 13 

Jewish Lunar Cycle 6 

Dionysian Period 199 

Julian Period i .6583 



MOKNIXft AND EVEMNG STABS. 

Venus will be Evening Star until February 3d, then Morning Star 
until December 8th. 

Mars will be Evening Star until March 12th, then Morning Star 
to December 16th. 

Jupiter will be Evening Star until May 24th, then Morning Star to 
September 18th, then Evening Star the rest of the year. 

Saturn will bo Morning Star until March 18th, then Evening Star 
to December 22d. 



HEBREW GALESfBAB, 5680-5631. 

COMMENCEMENT OE THE YEAE, \™ $$£$££ &£ gffi 



New Moons. 


Fasts and Feasts. 


Dates. 


5030 
Tcbctk 28. . 




1870 
January 1 
3 


Shebat 




Adar Rishon 




February 1-2 
March 3^4 






13.. 


Fast of Esther 


". 16 


14. . 


Purim 


17-18 


Nisan 




April 2 
10-23 


15-22. . 


Pe&ach 


Ivar 




May 1-2 
19 


18.. 


Lag Laomer 


Sivan 




31 


C-7. . 


Sliebuotli 


June 5-6 


Tammooz 




29-30 


17.. 




July 17* 
29 


Ab 




9.. 




August 7* 

27-28 


Ellol 




5031. 






Tishreo 1-2 . . 


New Year 


September 26-27 
28 


3.. 


Fast of G vedaliab 


10.. 


Kippur 


October 5 


15-10.. 


Tabernacles 


10-11 


21. . 


Hosbaanab Eabbah 


16 


23. . 


Sbemene Atzareth 


17 


23.. 


Simcbatb Torab 


18 


Heshvan 




25-26 


Kislive 




November 24—25 


Tcbchct 




December 24-25 



*Held on Sunday in consequence of its being on the Sabbath, when no fast except 
Kipper can bo celebrated. 

N. B— On all occasions where two days are set apart for the same observance, the 
first day only is kept by the Reform Jews. 



EASTER TABLE. 



1870 April 17 

1871 April 9 

1873 (Leap Year) March 31 

1873 April 13 

1874 April 5 



1875 March 28 

1876 (Leap Year) April 16 

1877 April 1 

1878 April 21 

1879 



Immigration. — The immigration from foreign countries to the 
United States, during the two years previous to June, 1809, was equal 
to about six hundred thousand souls. 



1st Month. 


JANUARY, 1870. 31 Days. 




MOON'S PHASES. 




r>. h. m. r>. h. m. 


New Mo^n - - 




L 7 11 Eve. I Last Quarter 24 5 26 Morn. 

9 4 5 Eve. 1 New Moon 31 10 8 Morn. 


First Q 


iarter 


.......... 


Full Moon 


.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.17 9 49 Morn. | 


D o7 


*$ 


Moon's 


H. Wateb 


H. Wateb 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Month. 


Week. 


Place. 


Laege. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


A. M. 








1 


Sat 


ltf 


20 S. 


10 23 l. 


7 21 


4 47 


4 40 


2 


Sun 




1 14 


11 15 


7 21 


4 47 


5 40 


3 


Mon 


MAT 


1 59 


10 p.m. 


7 21 


448 


6 38 


4 


Tues 




2 36 


1 03 


7 21 


4 49 


7 41 


5 


Wed 




3 10 


1 58 


7 21 


4 50 


8 43 


6 


Thur 


X 


3 46 


2 56 


7 21 


4 51 


9 42 


7 


Fri 




4 22 


4 02 


7 21 


4 52 


10 41 


8 


Sat 


r 


5 12 


5 16 


7 20 


4 53 


11 39 


9 


S 




5 49 L. 


5 37 s. 


7 20 


4 54 


morn. 


10 


Mon 


a 


6 50 


7 08 


7 20 


4 55 


36 


11 


Tues 




7 20 


8 14 


7 20 


4 56 


1 32 


12 


Wed 




7 57 


9 25 


7 20 


4 57 


2 30 


13 


Thur 


n 


8 30 


10 36 


7 20 


4 58 


3 28 


14 


Fri 




9 00 


11 28 


7 19 


4 59 


4 28 


15 


Sat 




9 35 


02 a.m. 


7 19 


5 00 


5 27 


16 


8 


25 


10 03 


30 


7 19 


5 01 


rises. 


17 


Mon 




10 44 


1 02 


7 19 


5 02 


5 18 


18 


Tues 


si 


11 37 


1 42 


7 19 


5 03 


6 27 


19 


Wed 




33 p.m. 


2 25 


7 18 


5 04 


7 36 


. 20 


Thur 


rrji 


1 24 


3 08 


7 18 


5 05 


8 44 


21 


Fri 




2 30 


3 38 


7 18 


5 06 


9 57 


22 


Sat 


dSs 


3 45 


4 20 


7 17 


5 07 


11 04 


23 


S 




5 12 s. 


5 10 l. 


7 17 


5 08 


morn. 


24 


Mon 


K 


6 31 


5 54 


7 16 


5 09 


15 


25 


Tues 




7 52 


6 36 


7 15 


5 10 


1 25 


26 


Wed 


t 


9 11 


7 30 


7 15 


5 11 


2 32 


27 


Thur 




10 22 


8 08 


7 14 


5 12 


3 36 


28 


Fri 


ys 


11 28 


8 53 


7 13 


5 13 


4 42 


29 


Sat 




10 a.m. 


9 33 


7 12 


5 14 


5 38 


30 


8 




20 


10 18 


7 12 


5 15 


6 28 


31 


Mon 




55 


11 06 


7 11 


5 16 


7 16 


Without o: 


sygen, any animal dies. Without fresh air constantly 


supplied, it su 


Qfers for want of oxygen. This suffering is in propor- 


tion to the abs 


3nce of oxygen from the air which is breathed, or to 


the presence oi 


something hurtful in it. Hence the necessity for good 


ventilation in ( 


Iwellings. Sleeping with the mouth shut is a preven- 


tive of fevers ii 


i malarious localities. Workmen are often driven from 


mines, for dayg 


, by changes in the weather, when a fire would remedy 


the evil. 





2d Month. 



FEBRUARY, 1870. 



28 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 
D. H. M. I 

First Quarter 8 1 24 Eve. Last Quarter. 

Full Moon 15 10 32 Eve. 



r>. H. m. 

.22 1 48 Eve. 



Day 
of 

Mouth. 


Day 

of 
"Week. 


' Moon's 


H. Wateb 


H. Water 


— 

Sun 


| Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


A. M. 


n. m. 






1 


Tues 


A*V 


1 32 S. 


11 58 L. 


7 10 


5 17 


6 28 


2 


Wed 


X 


2 06 


52 


7 09 


5 19 


7 28 


3 


Thur 




2 32 


1 42 


7 08 


5 20 


8 30 


4 


Fri 




2 58 


2 36 


7 07 


5 21 


9 27 


5 


Sat 


T 


3 26 l. 


3 15 s. 


7 06 


5 22 


10 24 


6 


S 




4 10 


4 36 


7 05 


5 23 


11 18 


7 


Mon 




4 46 


5 35 


7 04 


5 24 


morn. 


8 


Tues 


« 


5 24 


6 48 


7 02 


5 26 


16 


9 


Wed 




6 03 


8 00 


7 01 


5 27 


1 14 


10 


Thur 


LT 


6 40 


9 04 


7 00 


5 28 


2 14 


11 


Fri 




7 25 


10 17 


6 59 


5 29 


3 12 


12 


Sat 


25 


8 08 


11 05 


6 58 


5 30 


4 08 


13 


S 




8 56 


11 50 


6 57 


5 31 


5 04 


14 


Mon 


a 


9 43 


04 a.m. 


6 56 


5 32 


5 56 


15 


Tues 




10 30 


28 


6 55 


5 33 


rises. 


16 


Wed 


i* 


11 33 


1 02 


6 54 


5 34 


6 27 


17 


Thur 




30 p.m. 


1 46 


6 52 


5 36 


7 40 


18 


Fri 


. _A_ 


1 27 


2 20 


6 51 


5 37 


8 52 


19 


Sat 




2 36 


2 50 l. 


6 50 


5 38 


10 02 


20 


S 


K 


3 54 


3 18 


6 49 


5 39 


11 16 


21 


Mon 




5 15 


4 00 


6 48 


5 40 


morn. 


22 


Tues 


t 


6 43 


4 48 


6 47 


5 41 


25 


23 


Wed 




8 02 


5 40 


6 46 


5 42 


1 32 


24 


Thur 




9 21 


6 32 


6 45 


5 43 


2 36 


25 


Fri 


10 


10 23 


7 25 


6 43 


5 44 


3 36 


26 


Sat 




11 15 


8 20 


6 41 


5 45 


4 28 


27 


S 


/vvv 


11 53 


9 15 


6 40 


5 46 


5 12 


28 


Mon 




06 a.m. 


10 05 


6 38 


5 47 


5 53 



Drainage of Paris. — Paris contains more than three hundred 
miles of drainage, of a hight and width to admit of their exploration 
without difficulty. For cleaning purposes a boat is introduced, fur- 
nished with a scraper at the bow, which nearly fills the lower portion 
of the drain. This scraper forms a dam, and the water rising behind 
it becomes a motive power, which pushes the boat forward, carrying 
the mud and other filth along with it. 

The California Gold Fields. — The gold-mines of California ex- 
tend a distance of about five hundred miles, over seven degrees of 
latitude, from Tulare and Kern Counties in the south, through the 
whole range of counties northward, to the Oregon line. 



3d Month 




MARCH, 1870. 


31 Bays. 




r>. 
2 


MOON'S PHASES. 

H. M. 

3 45 Morn. | Last Quarter 

8 14 Morn. 1 New Moon 

8 57 Morn. | 


D. H. M. 

23 11 40 Eve. 


First Quarter 

Full Moon 


10 

17 


31 9 4 Eve. 



Day 

of 
Month. 


Day 
of 

! Week. 


Moon's 


H. Watee 


H. Watee 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Laege. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


A. M. 








1 


Tucs 


X 


24 8. 


1 11 10 


6 36 


5 49 


5 20 


2 


Wed 




; 52 


02 p.m. 


6 34 


5 50 


6 18 


3 


Thur 




i 1 18 


52 


6 33 


5 51 


7 19 


4 


Fri 


T 


1 40 l. 


1 24 s. 


6 32 


5 52 


8 15 


5 


Sat 




2 09 


2 24 


6 31 


5 53 


9 12 


6 


8 


« 


2 28 


3 18 


6 29 


5 54 


10 09 


7 


Mon 




2 52 


4 18 


6 27 


5 55 


11 02 


8 


Tues 




3 26 


5 25 


6 23 


5 50 


morn. 


9 


Wed 


n 


! 4 04 


6 30 


6 25 


5 57 


03 


10 


Thur 




4 52 


7 44 


6 23 


5 53 


59 


11 


Fri 


£5 


5 36 


8 36 


6 21 


5 59 


1 58 


12 


Sat 




6 33 


9 30 


6 19 


G 00 


2 55 


13 


S 


a 


7 40 


10 28 


6 18 


6 01 


3 42 


14 


Mon 




8 39 


11 11 


6 17 


6 03 


4 33 


15 


Tues 


n 


9 35 


11 48 


6 15 


6 03 


5 14 


16 


Wed 


10 30 


02 a.m. 


6 13 


6 04 


rises. 


17 


Thur 


& 


i 11 25 


18 


6 11 


6 05 


6 28 


.18 


Fri 




44 p.m. 


47 


6 10 


6 03 


7 42 


19 


Sat 


% 


1 44 


1 24 


6 08 


6 07 


8 57 


20 


8 




2 48 


1 54 


6 07 


G 03 


10 12 


21 


Mon 


s 


4 02 


2 22 


6 05 


6 09 


11 22 


22 


Tues 


5 24 


3 00 


6 04 


6 10 


morn. 


23 


Wed 


J 


6 48 


3 54 


6 02 


6 11 


30 


24 


Thur 




7 58 


4 54 


6 01 


C 12 


1 32 


25 


Fri 


MA/ 


9 02 


5 58 


6 00 


6 13 


2 24 


26 


Sat 




10 02 


7 12 


5 58 


6 14 


3 12 


27 


S 




10 42 


8 11 


5 56 


G 15 


3 51 


28 


Mon 


X 


11 18 


9 09 


5 55 


6 15 


4 27 


29 


Tues 




11 42 


10 01 


5 53 


G 10 


4 58 


30 


Wed 




11 58 


10 52 


5 51 


6 17 


5 28 


31 


Thur 


T 


06 A.M. 1 


11 36 


5 50 


6 18 


5 52 



Big Trees. — The mammoth trees of California {sequoia gigantea) 
are found in four different counties, to wit : Calaveras, Mariposa, Tuo- 
lumne and Tulare. The largest are from thirty- five to forty feet in 
diameter, with a hight from three hundred to four hundred feet. 

The first discovery of gold in California, which led to the popula- 
tion of the country by American citizens, was made in February, 1848„ 
in tho race of Sutter's Mill, near Coloma, El Dorado County, by Jo- 
seph Marshall. 



4th Month. 



APRIL, 1870. 



30 Days. 



First Quarter, 
full 31oon ... 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. I D. H. M. 

..8 11 30 Eve. Last Quarter 22 11 SO Morn. 

.15 5 23 Eve. I New Moon 30 1 42 Eve. 



Day 

of 
Month. 


Day 

of 

Week. 


. Moon's 


H. Wateb 


II. WATEE 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


P. M. 








1 


Fri 


T 


23 


08 


5 50 


18 


7 05 


2 


Sat 




1 02 


1 24 


5 48 


19 


8 02 


3 


S 


8 


1 18 


2 12 


5 47 


20 


8 57 


4 


Mori 




3 38 


3 00 


5 40 


21 


9 53 


5 


Tues 


n 


1 53 


3 58 


5 44 


22 


10 54 


6 


Wed 




1 23 


4 53 


5 43 


6 23 


11 43 


7 


Thur 




3 14 


05 


5 42 


21 


morn. 


8 


Fri 


55 


4 04 


7 00 


5 40 


25 


42 


9 


Sat 




5 03 


8 00 


5 89 


G 20 


1 30 


10 


S 


SI 


G 08 


8 57 


5 38 


27 


2 24 


11 


Mon 




7 18 


9 50 


5 37 


23 


3 00 


12 


Tues 


*% 


8 24 


10 30 


5 80 


29 


3 45 


13 


Wed 




9 23 


11 12 


5 34 


80 


4 24 


14 


Thur 


-A- 


10 18 


11 42 


5 33 


81 


4 53 


15 


Fri 




11 15 s. 


11 54 l. 


5 31 


82 


rises. 


10 


Sat 


"l 


43 p.m. 


03 a.m. 


5 29 


G 33 


7 40 


17 


8 




1 58 


21 


5 23 


G 34 


9 00 


18 


Mon 


t 


2 53 


57 


5 20 


G 35 


10 12 


Id 


Tues 




4 05 


1 32 


5 24 


6 30 


11 18 


20 


Wed 


\$ 


5 10 


2 12 


5 23 


6 87 


morn. 


21 


Thur 




27 


3 14 


5 22 


38 


18 


22 


Fri 




7 32 


4 23 


5 21 


89 


11 12 


23 


Sat 


MA/ 


8 27 


5 44 


5 20 


40 


1 50 


24 


S 




9 10 


50 


5 18 


6 42 


2 32 


25 


Mon 


X 


9 54 


8 02 


5 10 


42 


3 02 


2G 


Tues 




10 24 


9 00 


5 15 


6 43 


3 31 


27 


Wed 


f 


10 48 


9 48 


5 14 


6 43 


3 50 


28 


Thur 




11 28 


10 50 


5 13 


44 


4 23 


29 


Fri 


tf 


11 43 


11 15 


5 12 


6 44 


4 43 


30 


Sat 


u 1 

i 


03A.M 


11 53 


5 10 


45 


5 10 



Earthquakes. — A compilation made by John Phillips, in his work 
entitled " Vesuvius," gives the number of earthquakes as they oc- 
curred by centuries, dating from the fourth, as follows : In the fourth 
century, 21 ; in the fifth, 25 ; in the sixth, 31 ; in the seventh, 10 ; in 
the eighth, 11 ; in tho ninth, 80 ; in the tenth, 17; in the eleventh, 51 ; 
in the twelfth, 08 ; in the thirteenth, 55 ; in the fourteenth, 58 ; in the 
fifteenth, 41 ; in the sixteenth, 110 ; in the seventeenth, 180 ; in the 
eighteenth, 080 ; in tho nineteenth, 925. In the last four centuries, 
tho increase of shocks has been enormous, and within the last two 
years have spread over nearly the entire face of the globe. 



5th Month. 



MAY, 1870. 



31 Days. 









MOON'S 


PHASES. 














>. H. M. 


1 




D. H 


M. 






3 10 42 Morn. 
5 1 8 Morn. 


Last Quartei 
1 New Moon.. 




22 1 

30 5 


12 Morn. 


Full Moon 




l 


2 Morn. 


Day 

of 
Month. 


Day 

of 
Week. 


Moon's 


H. Water. 


H. Wateb 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Labge. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


P. M. 








1 


s 


8 


02 


1 26 


5 08 


6 46 


7 50 


2 


Mon 


n 


20 L. 


2 17 s. 


5 07 


6 47 


8 48 


3 


Tues 


35 


3 01 


5 06 


6 48 


9 46 


4 


Wed 




1 04 


3 54 


5 05 


6 49 


10 38 


5 


Thur 


0"n 


1 32 


4 32 


5 04 


6 50 


11 30 


6 


Fri 




2 28 


5 24 


5 03 


6 51 


morn. 


7 


Sat 


si 


3 33 


6 21 


5 02 


6 52 


22 


8 


S 


4 45 


7 18 


5 01 


6 53 


1 05 


9 


Mon 




5 56 


8 11 


5 00 


6 54 


1 44 


10 


Tues 


m 


7 09 


9 01 


4 59 


6 55 


2 18 


11 


Wed 


8 20 


9 44 


4 58 


6 56 


2 56 


J3 


Thur 


~*-, 


9 32 


10 07 


4 57 


6 57 


3 30 


13 


Fri 




10 30 


10 42 


4 56 


6 58 


4 02 


14 


Sat 


K 


11 32 


11 05 


4 55 


6 59 


rises. 


15 


S 


50 p.m. 


11 51 


4 55 


7 00 


7 50 


16 


Mon 


t 


1 50 


02 a.m. 


4 54 


7 01 


8 58 


17 


Tues 




2 53 


24 


4 53 


7 02 


10 06 


18 


Wed 


V5 


3 48 


1 02 


4 52 


7 03 


11 02 


19 


Thur 




4 50 


1 48 


4 51 


7 03 


11 54 


20 


Fri 


/VIV 


5 55 


2 52 


4 51 


7 04 


morn. 


21 


Sat 




6 54 


4 06 


4 50 


7 05 


33 


22 


8 


X 


7 41 


5 20 


4 49 


7 06 


1 08 


23 


Mon 




8 24 


6 27 


4 49 


7 06 


1 36 


24 


Tues 




9 02 


7 34 


4 48 


7 07 


2 04 


25 


Wed 


T 


9 42 l. 


8 38 


4 47 


7 07 


2 30 


26 


Thur 




10 05 


9 28 


4 46 


7 08 


2 54 


27 


Fri 




10 25 


10 22 


4 46 


7 08 


3 18 


28 


Sat 


H 


10 38 


11 14 


4 45 


7 09 


3 48 


29 


S 




10 56 


05 


4 45 


7 09 


4 20 


30 


Mon 


• n 


11 22 


56 


4 44 


7 10 


sets. 


31 


Tues 




11 48 


1 48 


4 44 


7 10 


8 35 



Yield op the Butte Mines. — The gold mines of the Butte Moun- 
tain, in Sierra County, yielded during 1 a period of nine years and six 
months, from about the middle of 1867, the gross sum of $1,345,000. 
Of this amount, $460,000 were paid in expenses, leaving $884,400 for 
profit. The quartz averaged from $16 to $18 per ton. 

The total population of the United States and Territories, according 
to the census of 1860, was 31,148,571. Of this number, 4,136,175 were 
foreigners, including all nationalities. Ireland claims 1,611,304 ; Ger- 
many, including Prussia and Switzerland, 2,620,306. 



6th Month. 



JUNE, 1S70. 



30 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 









D. H. M. 


1 




D. 


H. M. 


Firat Quarter 




.6 6 21 Eve. 


Last Quarter 


20 


4 40 Eve. 


Full Moon 




13 8 H Morn. 


1 Newr Moon. 




28 


6 38 Eve. 


Day 

of 
Month. 


Day 

of 
Week. 


Moon's 


H. Water 


H. Water 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 




1 




A. M. 


P. M. 








1 


Wed 1 


25 


02 L. 


2 42 s. 


4 44 


7 11 


9 32 


2 


Thur 




24 


3 24 


4 44 


7 11 


10 21 


3 


Fri 




1 13 


4 01 


4 43 


7 12 


11 08 


4 


Sat 


si 


2 10 


4 42 


4 43 


7 13 


11 47 


5 


S 




3 38 


5 32 


4 43 


7 13 


morn. 


6 


Mon 


*R 


4 38 


6 27 


4 43 


7 14 


24 


7 


Tues 




5 52 


7 15 


4 43 


7 15 


56 


8 


Wed 


-£; 


7 06 s. 


7 48 l. 


4 42 


7 16 


1 30 


9 


Thur 




8 28 


8 38 


4 42 


7 16 


2 01 


10 


Fri 


"l 


9 38 


9 12 


4 42 


7 17 


2 34 


11 


Sat 




10 48 


9 48 


4 42 


7 17 


3 10 


12 


8 


t 


11 48 


10 22 


4 42 


7 17 


3 47 


13 


Mon 




48 p.m. 


10 52 


4 42 


7 18 


rises. 


14 


Tues 


V3 


1 52 


11 52 


4 42 


7 18 


8 50 


15 


Wed 




2 38 


02 a.m. 


4 42 


7 18 


9 43 


16 


Thur 


At* 


3 24 


41 


4 42 


7 19 


10 30 


17 


Fri 




4 08 


1 34 


4 42 


7 19 


11 06 


18 


Sat 




5 02 


2 35 


4 42 


7 19 


11 40 


19 


S 


x 


5 54 


3 48 


4 43 


7 20 


morn. 


20 


Mon 




6 37 


5 02 


4 43 


7 20 


06 


21 


Tues 


T 


7 12 


6 10 


4 43 


7 20 


33 


22 


Wed 




8 12 l. 


7 18 


4 43 


7 20 


56 


23 


Thur 




8 42 


7 56 


4 43 


7 20 


1 24 


24 


Fri 


8 


9 14 


9 00 


4 44 


7 20 


1 43 


25 


Sat 




9 41 


10 10 


4 44 


7 20 


2 18 


26 


S 


n 


9 57 


10 02 


4 44 


7 21 


2 54 


27 


Mon 




10 23 


11 54 


4 44 


7 21 


3 34 


28 


Tues 




10 49 


48 p.m. 


4 45 


7 21 


sets. 


29 


Wed 


25 


11 28 


1 40 


4 45 


7 21 


8 15 


80 


Thur 




02 a.m. 


2 26 


4 46 


7 21 


9 06 



The Blue Lead. — The celebrated blue-gravel lead is the bed of a 
stream belonging to the early geological ages, composed of gravel 
and boulders, in some places yielding readily to the hydraulic stream, 
and in others a hard, tenacious cement. One mile of the lead, com- 
mencing .at Forest City and extending southward, yielded, from 1854 
to 1860, the sum of $5,095,000. Thirty-seven different claims were 
included in the enumeration. 

The first railroad in America was three miles in length, reaching 
from Quincy to the Neaponset Paver, in Massachusetts. It was begun 
in 1826 and completed in 1827, the carriages being drawn by horses. 



7t!i Month. 



JULY, 1870. 



31 Bays. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. I 

First Quarter 5 11 33 Eve. Last Quarter . 

Full Moon 12 5 38 Eve. ! New Moon,. . 



r>. H. m. 
20 9 20 Morn. 
.28 6 21 Morn. 



Day 


Day 


Moon's 


H. Water 


H. Water 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Month. 


Week. 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


P. M. 








1 


Fri 


a 


09 


2 56 


4 46 


7 21 


9 48 


2 


Sat 




1 02 


3 36 


4 47 


7 21 


10 24 


3 


§ 


m 


1 57 


4 12 


4 47 


7 20 


10 58 


4 


Mon 




3 10 


4 57 


4 48 


7 20 


11 32 


5 


Tues 


sSs 


4 24 


5 48 


4 48 


7 20 


inorn. 


6 


Wed 




5 43 s. 


6 25 l. 


4 49 


7 20 


02 


7 


Thur 


K 


7 03 


7 13 


4 49 


7 19 


34 


8 


Fri 


8 21 


5 53 


4 50 


7 19 


1 07 


9 


Sat 


t 


9 36 


8 36 


4 50 


7 19 


1 42 


10 


S 


10 48 


9 20 


4 51 


7 18 


2 29 


11 


Mon 




11 49 


9 54 


4 52 


7 18 


3 15 


12 


Tues 


*5 


48 p.m. 


10 49 


4 52 


7 18 


rises. 


13 


Wed 




1 39 


11 42 


4 53 


7 17 


8 18 


14 


Thur 


MW 


2 20 


06 a.m. 


4 54 


7 17 


9 02 


15 


Fri 




2 54 


33 


4 54 


7 16 


9 35 


16 


Sat • 


X 


3 29 


1 22 


4 55 


7 16 


10 05 


17 


S 




4 10 


2 15 


4 55 


7 15 


10 34 


18 


Mon 


r 


4 48 


3 17 


4 56 


7 15 


10 58 


19 


Tues 




5 37 L. 


4 25 s. 


4 57 


7 14 


11 24 


20 


Wed 


8 


6 15 


5 23 


4 57 


7 14 


11 57 


21 


Thur 




6 48 


6 33 


4 58 


7 13 


morn. - 


22 


Fri 




7 30 


7 44 


4 59 


7 13 


21 


23 


Sat 


n 


7 59 


8 55 


5 00 


7 12 


52 


24 


S 




8 34 


9 58 


5 00 


7 11 


1 28 


25 


Mon 




9 06 


10 58 


5 01 


7 10 


2 18 


26 


Tues 


E5 


9 43 


11 58 


5 02 


7 09 


2 56 


27 


Wed 




10 25 


44 p.m. 


5 03 


7 08 


3 52 


28 


Thur 


a 


11 18 


1 23 


5 04 


7 08 


sets. 


29 


Fri 




02 a.m. 


2 04 


5 05 


7 07 


8 23 


30 


Sat 


*K 


07 


2 20 


5 06 


7 06 


9 02 


31 


H 




1 01 


2 48 


5 07 


7 05 


9 33 



Nationalities of the Army that Put Down the Rebellion. — 
The statistical tables published by R. Guy McClellan, in the appendix 
to his " History of Republicanism in America," furnish the following 
item relating 1 to the composition of the Army during the late rebel- 
lion : Whole number of the Federal Army during the war, 2,688,523. 
Of these there were 176,800 Germans ; 144,200 Irish ; 53.500 British 
Americans ; 45,500 English ; and 74,900 of unknown foreign nationali- 
ties. The Germans outnumbered the Irish 32,600, and the native-born 
Americans outnumbered all foreigners by 2,173,623. 



Sth Month. 


AUGUST, 1870. 


31 Days. 




MOON'S PHASES. 




E 


. H. M. 


D. H. M. 


First Quarter 4 

Full Moon 11 


3 51 Morn. Last Quarter 

4 18 Morn. | New Moon 


19 2 53 Morn 


26 4 28 Eve. 


Day | Day j 
of of 
Month. Week. 


Moon's 


H. Water 


H. Water Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 




A. M. 


P. Iff. 








1 Mon z± 


1 56 


3 21 


5 07 


7 04 


10 08 


2 Tues 


3 05 s. 


3 48 l. 


5 08 


7 03 


10 35 


8 Wed 


4 29 


4 38 


5 09 


7 02 


11 08 


4 Thur 


"1 


5 48 


5 23 


5 10 


7 01 


11 42 


5 Fri 




7 10 


6 11 


5 11 


7 00 


morn. 


6 Sat 


t 


8 33 


7 07 


5 12 


6 59 


22 


7 S 


* 


9 51 


7 56 


5 13 


6 58 


1 08 


8 Mon 


VJ 


11 02 


9 02 


5 14 


6 57 


2 02 


9 Tues 




11 54 


9 57 


5 15 


6 56 


3 02 


10 Wed ZZ 


38 p.m. 


10 50 


5 16 


6 55 


rises. 


11 Thur 




1 11 


11 36 


5 17 


6 54 


7 32 


12 Fri 


X 


1 40 


02 a.m. 


5 17 


6 53 


8 06 


13 Sat 




2 06 


27 


5 18 


6 52 1 8 33 


14 S 




3 30 


1 17 


5 19 


6 51 ! 9 02 


15 Mon T 


3 07 l. 2 08 p. I 5 19 


6 50 ' 9 25 


16 Tues 


3 35 


2 53 ! 5 20 


6 49 9 53 


17 Wed [j « 


4 12 


3 52 ! 5 21 


6 48 10 18 


18 


Thur 




4 48 


5 C2 5 22 


47 10 48 


19 


Fri 




5 26 


6 14 i 5 23 


6 40 11 22 


20 


Sat 


n 


5 08 7 27 2 24 


6 45 morn. 


21 H 




6 54 | 8 36 ; 5 25 


a 43 ' 02 


' 22 


Mon 


53 


7 48 ! 9 46 l 5 26 


6 42 48 


23 


Tues 




8 38 j 10 46 : 5 27 


6 41 1 36 


. 24 


Wed 




9 30 1 11 37 i 5 28 


6 40 . 2 37 


25 


Thur 


SI 


10 20 ; 18 p.m.I 5 29 


: 6 39 


, 3 41 


26 


Fri 




11 12 54 j 5 30 


6 37 


sets. 


27 


Sat 


n 


02a.m. 1 28 1 5 31 


6 36 


| 7 33 


28 


s 




08 1 33 ! 5 32 


6 35 


8 06 


29 


Mon 


=2= 


1 06 s. i 1 47 l. j 5 33 


1 6 33 


i 8 38 


30 


Tues 




2 07 ! 2 18 1 5 34 


i 6 32 


9 12 


SI 


Wed 


1 "I 


3 12 | 2 47 1 5 35 


6 30 


9 48 


: Republics of the 


World. — The countries, provi 


aces and cities of 


the world which hav 


e a Republican form of Govei 


nment, are — the 


United States, Andova 


, Bremen, Frankfort, Switzerla 


nd, Lubec, Ham- 


: burg, San Marino, Ai 


gentine, Liberia, Bolivia. Mes 


Ico, Chile, Ecua- 


1 dor, Paraguay, Peru, 


Uraguay, Venezuela, Coloml 


)ia, Costa Eica, 


! Guatemala, Honduras 


, Hayti, San Salvador, Nicaras 


jua, and San Do- 


i iningo. 






The constitution o 


F the United States went into 


operation on the 


first Wednesday in M 


arch, 1789. 





9th Month. 


SEPTEMBER, 1870. 


30 Days. 


First Quarter 

Full Moon 


MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. I 

2 9 4 Morn. Last Quarter 

9 5 14 Eve. | New Moon 


D. H. M 

, 17 8 33 Eve. 

25 1 36 Morn. 



Day ! Day ! 
of i of 
Month. | Week. 



Moon's H. Water 



Place. 



Large. 



H. Water 

S 31 ALL. 



Sun 

Rises. 



Sun 

Sets. 



Moon 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



I 

j Thur i 


i II 


1 Fri 


i 


Sat 




S 


V3 


Mou 




Tues 




Wed 




Thur 




Fri 


X 


Sat 


i 


S 


T 


Mou 




Tues 


8 


Wed 




Thur 


I 


Fri 


TT 


Sat 




S 


25 


Mon 




Tues ; 




Wed ! 


a 


Thur 




Fri 


w 


Sat 




S 


-= 


Mou 1 


j 


Tues j 


"I 


Wed i 


i 


Thur i 


t 


Fri 


\ 



M. 

38 s. 

04 

24 

46 

56 

52 

36 

03 p.m. 

30 

48 

U 

37 l. 

58 

19 

47 

31 

18 

16 

17 

24 

27 

29 

21 

15 s. 

04A.M 

25 
18 
21 

27 
24 



P. M. 

3 37 l. 

4 35 

5 32 

6 47 

8 02 

9 05 
10 02 

10 58 

11 47 

02A.M 

25 

1 15 s. 

1 57 

2 44 

3 46 

4 48 

5 57 

7 12 

8 12 

9 15 

10 20 

11 04 
11 45 

14 p.m. 
38 l. 

53 

1 03 

1 24 

2 04 
2 52 



5 35 


5 36 


5 37 


5 37 


5 38 



5 39 


5 39 


5 40 


5 41 


5 42 


5 43 


5 43 


5 44 


" 5 45 


5 46 


5 47 


5 48 


5 49 


5 50 


5 51 


5 52 


5 53 


5 54 


5 55 


5 56 


5 57 


5 58 


5 58 


5 59 


5 59 



6 28 
6 27 
6 25 
6 24 
6 22 
6 21 
6 19 
6 18 
6 16 
6 14 
6 12 
6 10 
6 08 
6 06 
6 04 
6 02 
6 00 
5 59 
5 58 



5 47 
5 45 
5 44 
5 43 
5 41 



10 23 

11 10 
11 58 
morn. 

54 

1 58 

2 56 
4 02 

rises. 
7 04 
7 28 

7 54 

8 21 

8 48 

9 22 
9 58 

10 40 

11 28 
morn. 

22 

1 22 

2 27 

3 28 

4 50 
sets. 
7 10 

7 44 

8 22 

9 05 
9 54 



It is said of the snakes that they neither have country nor home. 
Sometimes they live in the ocean, sometimes on land, in warm, tem- 
perate, and cold climates ; are neither human, fishes, nor quadrupeds, 
and are destitute both of hair and feathers. They cannot be taught 
anything, and even when they have most reason to be grateful, return 
kindness with a sting. 

The minute particles of which mist is composed, are hollow globules, 
the diameter of which, measured through the microscope, is smaller 
in summer than in winter. This diameter increases when rain is 
three* toned. 



10th Month. 


OCTOBER, 1870. 


31 Days. 




MOON'S PHASES. 






D. H. M. 


New Moon 


D. H. M. 


First Quarter 

Full Moon 


,..1 4 24 Eve. 


24 10 42 Morn. 


9 9 43 Morn. 


First Quarter 


.... .31 3 6 Morn. 


Last Quarter 


17 1 18 Eve. 






Day Day 

of of 
Month. : Week. 

1 


Moon's 


H. Water j II. Wvter 


Sun 


Sun I Moon 


Place. 


Large. Smaxl. 


Rises. 


Sets. 1 Rises. 


| 




A. M. P. M. 






1 . Sat 


V5 


G 14 


4 12 ; 00 


5 40 


10 47 


2 S 




7 30 


5 32 6 01 


5 38 


11 49 


3 ! Mon 




8 38 


6 48 ! 6 02 


5 36 


morn. 


4 Tues 


<V*v 


9 40 8 02 6 03 


5 34 


82 


5 I Wed 


: 


10 25 ! 9 08 i 6 04 


5 32 


1 56 


6 | Thur 


X 


11 02 ] 10 12 6 05 


5 31 


2 58 


7 ! Fri 




11 28 1 11 02 j 6 06 


5 29 


3 56 


8 ! Sat 


V 


11 50 ! 11 54 6 07 


5 28 


4 56 


9 . S 




08 p.m.! 02A.M.J 6 08 


5 26 


rises. 


10 ! Mon ; 


tf 


35 l. i 20 s. 6 09 


5 25 


6 23 


11 ! Tues 


52 54 6 10 


5 24 


4 48 


12 Wed 


1 07 1 42 1 6 11 


5 22 


7 21 


13 Thur 


n 


1 28 : 2 36 6 12 


5 21 


7 54 


14 Fri 




1 58 ! 3 28 i 6 13 


5 20 


8 33 


15 ' Sat 




2 40 ! 4 24 ! 6 14 


5 19 


9 20 


16 S 


25 


5 18 


10 12 


17 Mon 




4 42 


6 40 i 6 16 


5 16 


11 06 


18 Tues 


SI 


5 54 


7 44 1 6 17 


5 14 


morn. 


19 Wed 




7 02 


8 42 6 18 


5 13 


08 


20 Thur , 




8 14 


9 38 6 19 


2 12 


1 12 


21 Fri 


trjj 


9 15 


10 27 ; 6 20 


5 10 


2 24 


22 Sat 




10 14 


11 02 6 21 


5 09 


3 36 


, 38 S 


-/■l. 


11 15 s. 


11 40 6 22 


5 08 


4 48 


24 Mon 




04a.m. 


11 48 6 23 


5 06 ; sets. 


25 Tues 


TT l 


14 


11 57 , 6V24 


5 05 | 6 12 


26 i Wed 




1 15 


15 p.m.! 6 25 


5 04 j 6 56 


27 '■■ Thur 


t 


2 18 53 ; 6 26 


5 02 I 7 44 J 

5 01 ! 8 40 ! 
5 00 ! 9 38 


28 Fri 


3 23 ! 1 28 16 27 


29 Sat 


v? 


4 42 i 2 40 i 6 28 


30 S 


6 02 \ 4 00 i 6 29 


4 59 j 10 40 


31 ~ i Mon : 


Z% 7 10 | 5 20 j 6 30 


4 58 | 11 44 


The area of 


California is 188,881 square miles, or 120,947,840 acres, 


of which not 1 


ess than 89,000,000 acres are suited t 


o some kind or 


other of profita 


bio husbandry. Forty millions are capable of cultiva- 


l tion, and tho r 


emainder well adapted to stock-raisin] 


I, fruit-growing, 


i etc. The State 


is 700 miles in length by 200 in width 




The Public 


Domain. — It is estimated that the pnl 


blic lands of the 


j United States, 


exclusive of Alaska, number nearly 


fifteen hundred 


: millions of acr< 


58. 





11th Month. 



NOVEMBER, 1870. 



30 Bays. 



Full Moon . . . 

Last Quarter. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. f I 
. .8 2 35 Morn. New Moon 
.16 4 2 Morn. I First Quarter. 



H. M. 
8 24 Eve. 
5 36 Eve. 



Day 
of 

Month. 


Day 
of 

Week. 


Moon's 


H. "Water 


H. Water 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


P. M. 








1 


Tues 


•wv 


8 12 


6 38 


6 30 


4^58 


morn. 


2 


Wed 


X 


9 02 


7 48 


6 32 


4,56 


52 


3 


Tlmr 




9 47 


8 56 


6 33 


4 55 


1 54 


4 


Fri 




10 18 


9 54 


6 34 


4 54 


2 52 


5 


Sat 


T 


10 42 l. 


10 32 s. 


6 35 


4 53 


3 48 


6 


8 




11 15 


11 34 


6 36 


4 52 


4 48 


7 


Mon 




11 28 


02 a.m. 


6 37 


4 51 


5 48 


8 


Tues 


8 


11 47 


18 


6 38 


4 50 


rises. 


9 


Wed 




11 49 


1 14 


6 39 


4 49 


5 54 


10 


Thur 


n 


12 p.m. 


1 50 


6 40 


4 48 


6 33 


11 


Fri 




36 


2 36 


6 41 


4 47 


7 12 


12 


Sat 


25 


l 12 


3 30 


6 42 


4 46 


8 04 


13 


£ 




2 09 


4 12 


6 44 


4 46 


8 54 


14 


Mon 




3 15 


5 04 


6 45 


4 45 


9 56 


15 


Tues 


a 


4 28 


6 02 


6 46 


4 44 


10 56 


16 


Wed 




5 42 


7 02 


6 47 


4 43 


morn. 


17 


Thur 


TT£ 


6 53 


7 54 


6 48 


4 42 


02 


18 


Fri 




8 04 a. 


8 42 


6 49 


4 41 


1 14 


19 


Sat 


=£= 


9 18 


9 32 l. 


6 50 


4 41 


2 20 


20 


S 




10 24 


10 04 


6 51 


4 40 


3 36 


21 


Mon 


*l 


11 25 


10 36 


6 52 


4 40 


4 48 


22 


Tues 




04 a.m. 


11 02 


6 53 


4 40 


6 08 


23 


Wed 


t 


24 


10 58 


6 54 


4 40 


sets. 


24 


Thur 




1 30 


11 36 


6 55 


4 39 


6 20 


25 


Fri 


W 


2 30 


34 p.m. 


6 56 


4 39 


7 22 


26 


Sat 




3 25 


1 30 


6 57 


4 39 


8 25 


27 


S 


2$ 


4 26 


2 36 


6 58 


4 38 


9 34 


28 


Mon 




4 32 


3 56 


6 59 


4 38 


10 42 


29 


Tues 


X 


6 34 


5 18 


7 00 


4 37 


11 44 


30 


Wed 




7 24 


6 35 


7 01 1 


4 37 


morn. 



Kefraction. — To prove how beautifully refraction obeys a law of it 
nature, put a coin in an empty basin, and step backward till the rim* 
of the basin hides it from view. Let a second person pour water upon 
it to the depth of several inches, and the coin comes again into view. 
This is because the light follows a broken line, and the same thing 
happens when it has to pass from a volume of air of greater, to one 
of less density. 

The seven principal hues of the prism are violet, indigo, blue, 
green, yellow, orange and red. These colors are caused by the decom- 
position of a white ray of light. 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER, 1870. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



Full Moon.... 
Last Quarter. 



9 41 Eve. 
4 14 Eve. 



New Moon 

First Quarter. 



D. H. M. 

.22 7 22 Morn. 
.29 11 41 Morn. 



Day 

of 

Month. 


Day 

of 
Week. 


Moon's 


H. Water. 


H. Water 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Place. 


Large. 


Small. 


Rises. 


-Beta. 


Rises. 








A. M. 


P. M. 








1 


Thur 


X 


8 04 


7 42 


7 02 


4 37 


48 


2 , 


, Fri 


T 


8 44 l. 


8 30 s. 


7 03 


4 37 


1 42 


3 


Sat 


9 25 


9 42 


7 04 


4 37 


2 43 


4 


S 


« 


9 48 


10 40 


7 05 


4 37 


3 38 


5 


Mon 


10 11 


11 40 


7 06 


4 36 


4 37 


6 


Tues 




10 30 


08 a.m. 


7 07 


4 36 


5 36 


7 


Wed 


n 


10 48 


30 


7 08 


4 36 


rises. 


8 


Thur 


10 54 


1 12 


7 09 


4 36 


5 12 


9 


Fri 


93 


11 33 


1 48 


7 10 


4 36 


5 56 


10 


Sat 




11 P.M. 


2 34 


7 10 


4 36 


6 48 


11 


S 




1 02 


3 12 


7 11 


4 37 


7 50 


12 


Mon 


Si 


1 55 


3 50 


7 12 


4 37 


8 48 


13 


Tues 




3 04 


4 32 


7 12 


4 37 


9 52 


14 


Wed 


v% 


4 22 


5 18 


7 13 


4 37 


10 54 


15 


Thur 




5 36 


6 12 


7 13 


4 38 


morn. 


16 


Fri 


-n_ 


6 5.4 


6 54 


7 14 


4 38 


04 


17 


Sat 




8 09 


7 42 


7 15 


4 38 


1 12 


18 


S 


"I 


9 25 


8 25 


7 16 


4 39 


2 24 


19 


Mon 


10 33 


9 00 


7 17 


4 39 


3 36 


20 


Tues 


t 


11 38 


9 36 


7 18 


4 39 


4 56 


1 


Wed 




02 A.M. 


10 04 


7 18 


4 40 


6 12 


Thur 


>5 


39 


10 37 


7 18 


4 40 


sets. 


23 


Fri 




1 32 


11 32 


7 19 


4 41 


6 04 


24 


Sat 




2 22 


22 p.m. 


7 19 


4 41 


7 12 


25 


8 


AiV 


3 04 


1 24 


7 19 


4 42 


8 21 


26 


Mon 




3 48 


2 48 


7 19 


4 43 


9 28 


27 


Tues 


x 


4 42 


3 42 


7 20 


4 43 


10 34 


28 


Wed 




5 30 


5 08 


,7 20 


4 44 


11 35 


29 


Thur 


V 


6 14 


6 18 


7 20 


4 45 


morn. 


30 


Fri 




6 54 l. 


7 12 


7 20 


4 46 


34 


31 


Sat 


8 


7 37 


8 25 


1 7 21 


4 47 


1 28 



In the Revolutionary war the six Southern States furnished 69,379 
troops, and the eight Northern States, 219,125 troops. Massachusetts 
furnished the largest number, 83,062,— being thirteen thousand six 
hundred and eighty-three more troops than were contributed by all 
the Southern States put together. 

It has been proved that the brain of the canary bird excels, in pro- 
portion to the bulk of their bodies, that of man. 

The first American Insurance Company was established in Boston, 
Mass., in 1724. 



22 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



UNITE© STATES GOVERNMENT, MARCH 4, 1868. 

President of the United States U. S. Grant, of Wisconsin. 

Vice President Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana. 

THE CABINET. 

Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, of New York 

Secretary of the Treasury George S, Boutwell, of Massachusetts 

Secretary of War James Belknap, of Iowa 

Secretary of the Navy Geo. M. Robeson, of New Jersey 

Postmaster-General J. A. J. Cresswell, of Maryland 

Secretary of the Interior J. S-. Cox, of Ohio 

Attorney-General E. R. Hoar, of Massachusetts 

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Name. 


Office. 


Date of 
Appoint't, 


Circuit. 


State whence 
Appointed. 


Salary 






1863 

1845 

1846 
1858 
1862 
1862 
1862 
1863 


Fourth . 
Fifth ... 


Ohio 


$6,500 




AssociiXe Justice 


6,000 


Samuel Nelson 

Robert C. Gtier 

Nathan Clifford 


Second.. 
Third . . . 
First ... 
Sixth . . . 


New York 

Pennsylvania. 

Maine 

Ohio 


6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 




Seventh. 
Eighth.. 
Ninth .. 


Illinois 


6.000 




6,000 


Stephen J. Field 


California 


6.000 



Circuits.— First : Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Sec- 
ond: New York, Vermont, and Connecticut. Third: Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
Delaware. Fourth: Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina and South 
Carolina. Fifth: Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Sixth: 
Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Seventh: Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. 
Eighth: Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas. Ninth: California, Oregon, 
and Nevada. 

The Court holds one general term, annually, at Washington, D. G, commencing on the 
first Monday in December. 



SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES IN THE FORTY-FIRST 

CONGRESS. 

SENATORS 

Alabama. 

Term Expires. 

Willard Warner, of Montgomery March 3, 1871 

George E. Spencer, of Decatur , March 3, 1873 

Alex. McDonald, of Little Rock ' March 3, 1871 

Benj. F. Rice, of Little Rock March 3, 1873 

California. 

Cornelius Cole, of San Francisco March 3, 1873 

Eugene Casserly, of San Francisco March 3, 1875 

Connecticut. 

Orris S. Ferry, of Norwalk March 3, 1873 

Wm. A. Buckingham, of Norwich March 3, 1875 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 23 

Delaicarc. 

Wm. Saulsbury, of Georgetown March 3, 1871 

Tkos. Francis Bayard, of Wilmington March 3, 1875 

Florida. 

Thos. W. Osborn, of Pensacola March 3, 1873 

Abijah Gilbert, of St. Augustine March 3, 1875 

Georgia. 

[Not yet reconstructed.] 

Illinois. 

Lyman Trumbull, of Chicago March 3, 1873 

Richard Yates, of Jacksonville March 3, 1871 

Indiana. 

Oliver P. Morton, of Indianapolis March 3, 1873 

\ Daniel D. Pratt, of Logansport March 3, 1875 

Iowa. 

James W. Grimes, of Burlington March 3, 1871 

James Harlan, of Mount Pleasant March 3, 1873 

Kansas. 

Samuel C. Pomeroy, of Atchison March 3, 1873 

Edmond G. Ross, of Lawrence March 3, 1871 

Kentucky. 

Garrett Davis, of Paris March 3, 1873 

Thos. C. McCreery, of Owensboro' March 3, 1871 

Louisiana. 

John S. Harris, of Vidalia March 4, 1871 

Wm. Pitt Kellogg, of New Orleans March 4, 1873 

Maine. 

Wm. Pitt Fessenden, of Portland March 3, 1871 

Hannibal Hamlin, of Bangor March 3, 1875 

Maryland. 

George Vickers, of Chestertown March 3, 1873 

Wm. T. Hamilton, of Hagerstown March 3, 1875 

Massachusetts. 

Charles Sumner, of Boston March 3, 1875 

Henry Wilson, of Natick March 3, 1871 

Michigan. 

Zachariah Chandler, of Detroit March 3, 1875 

Jacob M. Howard March 3, 1871 

Minnesota. 

Alexander Ramsey, of St. Paul March 3, 1875 

Daniel S. Norton, of Winona March 3, 1871 

Mississirvpi. 

[Not yet reconstructed.] 

Missouri. 

Chas. D. Drake, of St. Louis March 3, 1873 

Carl Schurz, of St. Louis March 3, 1875 

John M. Thayer, of Omaha ' March 3, 1871 

! Thos. W. Tipton, of Brown ville March 3, 1875 



24 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Nevada. 

James W. Nye, of Carson City March 3, 1873 

Wm. M. Stewart, of Virginia City March 3, 1875 

New Hampshire. 

Aaron H. Cragin, of Lebanon March 3, 1871 

James W. Patterson, of Hanover March 3, 1873 

New Jersey. 

Alex. G. Cattell, of Camden March 3, 1871 

John P. Stockton, of Trenton March 3, 1875 

New York. 

Roscoe Conkling, of Utica March 3, 1373 

Reuben E. Fenton, of Jamestown March 3, 1875 

North Carolina. 

Joseph C. Abbott, of Wilmington March 3, 1871 

John Pool, of Elizabeth City March 3, 1873 

Ohio. 

John Sherman, of Mansfield March 3, 1873 

Allen G. Thurman, of Columbus March 3, 1875 

Oregon. 

George H. Williams, of Portland March 3, 1871 

Henry W. Corbett, of Portland March 3, 1873 

Pennsylvania. 

Simon Cameron, of Harrisburg March 2, 1873 

John Scott, of Huntingdon March 3, 1875 

Rhode Island. 

Henry B. Anthony, of Providence March 3, 1871 

Wm. Sprague, of Providence March 3, 1875 

South Carolina. 

Thos. J. Robertson, of Columbia March 3, 1871 

Frederick A. Sawyer, of Charleston March 3, 1873 

Tennessee 

Joseph S. Fowler, of Nashville March 3, 1871 

Wm. G. Brownlow March 3, 1875 

Texas. 
[Not yet reconstructed.] 

Vermont. 

Geo. F. Edmunds, of Burlington , March 3, 1875 

Justin S. Morrill, of Strafford March 3, 1873 

Virginia. 

[Not yet reconstructed.] 

West Virginia. 

Waitman T. Willey, of Morgantown March 3, 1871 

Arthur Ingham Boreman, of Parkersburg March 3, 1875 

Wisconsin. 

Timothy O. Howe, of Green Bay March 3, 1873 

Matthew H. Carpenter, of Milwaukee March 3, 1875 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 25 




• 


REPRESENTATIVES 








Alabama. 








[Not yet chosen.] 








Arkansas. 






1. 


*Logan H. Roots. 


3. 


*Thomas Boles. 




2. 


{Anthony A. C. Rogers 


California. 






1. 


fSamuel B. Axtell. 


3. 


•{•James A. Johnson. 




2. 


*Aaron A. Sargent. 


Connecticut. 








[Not yet elected.] 








Delaware. 






For the State at large. . . . 


) . . . 


f Benjamin T. Biggs. 








Florida. 






For the State at large 




. . .*'Charles M. Hamilton. 






Georgia. — [Vacant.] 








Illinois. 






1. 


*N"onnan B. Judd. 


8. 


*Shelby M. Cullom. 




2. 


*John F. Farnsworth. 


9. 


•{•Thompson W. McNeely. 
•(•Albert G. Burr. 




3. 


[Vacant.] 


10. 




4. 


*John B. Hawley. 


11. 


•f Samuel S. Marshall. 




5. 


*Ebon C. Ingersoll 


12. 


*John B. Hay. 




6. 


*Burton C. Cook. 


13. 


fJohn M. Crebs 




7. 


* Jesse H. Moore. 


At 
Indiana. 
7. 


large — -John A. Logan. 




1. 


tWm. E. Niblack. 


*Godlovc S. Orth. 




2". 


•{•Michael C. Kerr. 
fWm. S Holman. 


8. 


*James N. Tvner. 




Q 


9. 


*John P. 0. Shanks. 




4." 


*George W. Julian. 


10. 


-William Williams. 




5. 


*John Coburn. 


li. 


* Jasper Packard. 




6. 


f Daniel W. Voorhees. 


Iowa. 


t 




1. 


*Geo. W. McCrary. 


i. 


*Wm, Loughridge. 




2. 


*Wm. Smyth. 


5. 


*Francis W. Palmer. 




3. 


* William B. Allison. 


6. 
Kansas: 


*Charles Pomeroy. 




State at Large 


^Sidney Clarke. 








Kentucky. 






1. 


■{-Lawrence S. Trimble. 
[Vacant.] 


6. 


fThos. L. Jones, 
f James B. Beck. 




2. 


7. 




, 3. 


f J. S. Golladay. 


8. 


•j-Geo. M. Adams. 
{John M. Rice. 




4. 


f J. Proctor Knott. 


9. 




5. 


fBoyd Winchester. 










Louisiana. — [Vacant.] 








Maine. 






1. 


*John Lynch. 


4. 


*John A. Peters. 




2 


*Samuel P. Morrill. 


5. 


-Eugene Hale. 




. 8 


*James G. Blaine. 









26 


ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 






Maryland. 


1- 1 


-Samuel Hambleton 


4. {Patrick Hamill. 


2. • 


-Stevenson Archer. 


5. {Frederick Stone. 


8. • 


-Thos. Swann. 


Massachusetts. 


1. * James Buffington. 


6. *Nathaniel P. Banks. 


2. *Oakes Arties. 


7. [Vacant.] 


3. *Ginery Twicliell. 


8. *Geo. F. Hoar 


4. *Samuel Hooper. 


9. *Wm. B. Washburn. 


5. *Benj. F. Butler. 


10. *Henry L. Dawes, 






Michigan, 


1. * 


"Fernando C. Beaman 


4. *Thos. W. Ferry. 


2. * 


E Wm. L . Stoughton. 


5. *Omer D. Conger. 


3. ^'Austin Blair. 


6. *Randolph Strickland. 






Minnesota. 


1. *Morton S. Wilkinson 


2. {Eugene M. Wilson. 




Mississippi. — [Vacant .] 






Mikseuri. 


1. fErastus Wells. 


8. ^Robert T. Van Horn. 


2. *GK A. Finkelnburg. 


7. *Joel F. Asper. 


3. -fJas. R. McCormick. 


8. *John F. Benjamin. 


4. *Sempronius H. Boyd. 


9. *David P. Dyer 


5. *Samuel S. Burdett. 








Nebraska. 


For tKifi Sta.tfi n.t, IflTcrft. 


*John Taffe 




. D~' - - - 


Nevada* 


For tl'A St.fl.tfi at la.ro-A . 


*Thrmia.s Fitr.h 




New Hampshire. 


1. *Jaeo!> ■ «:- 


3. * Jacob Benton. 


a.- 


* Aaron F. Stevens. 


New Jersey. 


1. *Wm. Moore. 


4. *John Hill. 


2. {Charles Haight 


5. fCrester Cleveland. 


3. ■ 


(•John T. Bird. 


New York. 


1. \ 


•Henry A. Reeves. 


17. *Wm. A. Wheeler. 


2. i 


■John G. Schumacker, 


18. *Stephen Sanford. 


3. • 


•Henry W. Slocum. 


19. *Charles Knapp. 


4. ■ 


•JohnFox. 


20. *Addison H. Laflin. 


5. J 


■John Morrissey. 


21. *Alex. H. Baley. 


0. • 


■Samuel S, Cox. 


22. *John C. Churchill. 


r< 


Hervey C. Calkin. 


23. *Dennis McCarthy. 


8! • 


-James Brooks. 


24. *Geo. W. Cowles. 


9. • 


Fernando Wood. 


25. *Wm, H. Kelsey. 


10. • 


■Clark Nott Potter. 


26. *Giles W. Hotclikiss.. 


11. - 


■George W. Green. 


27. ^Hamilton Ward. 


12. " 


Mohn H. Ketcham 


28. *Noah Davis. 


[ m ' 


■John A. Griswold. 


29. *John Fisher. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



27 



14. fStephen L. Mayham. 

15. *Adolphus II. Tanner 

16. *Orangj Ferriss. 



30. *David S. Bennett. 
31 *Porter Sheldon. 



1. *ClintonL. Cobb. 

2. *David Heaton. 

3. *01iver H. Dockery. 

4. *John T. Deweese. 



North Carolina. 

5. *Israel G. Lash. 

6. {Francis E. Shober. 

7. *Alex. H. Jones. 



Ohio. 



1. {Peter W. Strader. 

2. *Job E. Stevenson. 

3. *Robert G\Schenck. 

4. *Wm. Lawrence. 

5. fWm. Mungen. 

6. *John A. Smith. 

7. *James W. Winans. 

8. *John Beatty. 

9. {Edward F. Dickinson. 
10. {Trunian H. Hoag. 

Oregon. 

For the State at large {Joseph S. Smith. 

Pennsylvania 



11. *John T. Wilson. 

12. f Philadelph Van Trump. 

13. {Geo. W. Morgan. 

14. *Marlin Welker. 

15. *E. H. Moore. 

16. *John A. Bingham. 

17. "-Jacob A. Ambler. 

18. *Wni. H. Upson. 
19 *James A. Garfield. 



1. {Samuel J. Randall 

2. *Charles O'Neill. 

3. {JohnMoffet. 

4. *Wm. D. Kelley. 

5. {John R. Reading. 

6. {John D. StMes. 

7. *Washington Townsend 

8. {J. L. Getz. 

9. *01iver J. Dickey. 

10. *Henry. L. Cake. 

11. {Daniel M. Van Auken. 

12. {Geo. W. Woodward 



1. *Thos. A. Jenckes. 

1. *B. F. Whittemore. 

2. *C. C. Bowen. 



13. *Ulvsses Mercur. 

14. *John B. Packer. 

15. {Richard J. Haldeman. 

16. *John Cessna. 

17. *Daniel J. Morrell. 

18. *Wm. H. Armstrong. 

19. ^Glenni W. Scofield. 

20. *Calvin W. Gilfillan. 

21. *John Covode. 

22. *Jas S. Negley. 

23. *Darwin Phelps. 

24. *Jos. B. Donley, 
Rhode Island. 

2. *Nathan F. Dixon. 
South Carolina 

3. Vacant. 

4. Vacant. 



1. *Roderick R. Butler 

2. *Horace Maynard. 

3. *Wm. B. Stokes. 

4. *Lewis Tillman. 



5. *Wm. F. Prosser. 

6. *Samuel M. Arnell. 

7. *Isaac R. Hawkins. 

8. *W. J. Smith. 
Texas. — [Vacant.] 

Vermont. 

1. *Charles W. Willard. 3. *Worthington C. Smith. 

2. *Luke P. Poland. 

Virginia. — ["Vacant.] 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



1. *James H. Duval. 

2. * James C. McGrew. 

1. *Halbert E. Paine. 

2. *Benj. F. Hopkins. 

3. *Amasa Cobb. 



Virginia. 

3. *John T. Witcher. 



4. j-Chas. A. Eldridge. 

5. *Philetus Sawyer. 

6. *C. C. Washburn. 



TEREITOEUL DELEGATES 



Arizona. 
^Richard McCormick. 

Colorado. 
* Allen A. Bradford, 



^Republicans. 

tDemocrats. 

ilndependent. 



Utah. 
tWm. H. Hooper. 



Dakota. 
*S. L. Spink. 

Idaho. 
•j-J. K. Shafer. 



CALIFORNIA STATE OFFICERS. 



NAMES. 


OFFICIAL POSITION. 


residence. 


Henry H. Haight 


Governor 


Alameda Co. 


William Holden . . . 


Lieutenant-Governor 


Mendocino Co. 


H. L. Nichols 


Secretary of State 


Sacramento Co. 


Robert Watt 


Controller 


Nevada Co. 


Antonio F. Coronel 


Treasurer 


Los Angeles Co. 


Jo. Hamilton 


Attorney - General 


Placer Co. 


John W. Bost 


Surveyor - General 


Merced Co. 


James H. Cutter. . . 


Harbor Commissioner 


San Francisco. 


John J. Marks 

S. S. Tilton 

Rob't E. C. Stearns 
D. W. Gelwicks. . . . 


Harbor Commissioner 

Harbor Commissioner 

Sec'y of Harbor Commissioners. . 
State Printer 


San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
El Dorado Co. 


O.P.Fitzgerald.... 
James M. Allen. . . . 


Superintend't Public Instruction . 
Adjutant - General 


San Francisdo. 
San Francisco. 


W. C. Stratton 


Librarian 


Sacramento. 


Edward R.Taylor.. 


Governor's Private Secretary 


Sacramento. 



SAX FRANCISCO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. 

CITY AND COUNTY OFFICERS. 

Mayor Thos. H. Selby 

Sheriff P. J. White 

County Clerk John Hanna 

County Recorder W. L. Higgins 

Treasurer „ Otto Kloppenburg 

Assessor Levi Rosener 

District Attorney Henry H. Byrne 

County Surveyor Wm. P. Humphreys 

Chief of Police Patrick Crowley 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 29 




Coroner 




. . . Jona. Letterman 




Public Administrator. . . 




. . . Jacob Benjamin 




Auditor. . . 




. . . Thomas H. Holt 




( 'it y and County Attorney 

Superintendent of Streets 

Harbor Master 


. . . Jos. M. Nougues 

M. C. Smith 

Martin Bulger 




Tax Collector 








Fire Commissioner 

Harbor Commissioner. . . 




. . Benj. II. Freeman 
John J. Marks 




Chief Engineer of Fire 
Superintendent Public S 

F. A. Sawyer. 

Charles Cor 

1st Ward Hcnr 

2d Ward Joh 


Departmei 

chools. . . . 

JUST 

T. W. T 

sery. 

SUPER 
y Winkle 
a Harrold 
Flaherty 
McCarthy 
Ashbury 
• Badlam 

SCHOOL D 

E. H. Coe 
s. Kohler 
m. Shew 
Reynolds 
Stillman 
T, Mather 
chools. . . . 


it F. E. R. Whitney 

James Denman 

ICES. 

aliaferro. J. C. Pennie. 
Michael Cooney. 

VISORS. 

7th Ward. . . Richard Rinor 




8th Ward.. 

9th Ward .. 
10th Ward.. 
11th Ward . . 
12th Ward. . 

IRECTORS. 

7th Ward.. 

8th Ward.. 

9th Ward. . 
10th Ward. . 
11th Ward. . 
12th Ward . 


C. R. Story 

A. J. Shrador 

Jas. F. Adams 

P. II. Canavan 

M. J. Kelly 

J. F« Meagher 

Edgar Briggs 

R. H. Sinton 

. . . . A. K. Hawkins 

H.F.Williams 

J. M. Burnett 

James Denman 




3d Ward Edward 

4th Ward Tim. ] 

5th Ward Monroe 

6th Ward .... Alexandei 

1st Ward 

2d Ward Cha 

3d Ward W 

4th Ward... ...... C. H. 

5th Ward J. D. B. 

6th Ward J. ^ 

Superintendent Public S 










COTJXTY CLEBES. 




NAME. 


COUNTY. 


RESIDENCE. 




G. E. Smith 


Alameda. 
Alpme. . . 




San Leandro. 

Silver Mountain, 

Jackson. 

Oroville. 

San Andreas. 

Martinez. 

Colusa. 

Crescent City. 

Placerville. 

Millertown. 

Eureka. 

Independence. 

Havilah. 

Orleans Bar. 




J. N. Barber 

D. B. Spagnoli 






Amador . 
Butte 






M. H. Darrach 

W. A. Wallace 

A. J. Markley 






Calaveras 
Contra Cc 
Colusa . . 






sta 




J. Filkins 






Peter H. Peveler 

Wm. N. Muffley 

H. St. J. Dixon 

John A. Watson 

S. P. Moffat 

Thos. J. Williams 

B. W. Jencks 


Del Norte 
El Dorado 
Fresno . . 














Humboldt 
Inyo .... 










Kern 




Klamath. 













30 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 
county clerks — continued. 



NAME. 



Sarshel Bynum Lake 

T. D. Mott Los Angeles 

J. H. Breed Lassen 

John Reynolds Marin 

Angerine Reynolds .... Mariposa 

James Fowzer Mendocino 

James E. Hicks Merced 

A. W. Crocker. Mono 

W. M. R. Parker Monterey 

C. B. Seeley Napa 

J. J. Rogers Nevada 

Geo. G. Sewell Placer 

F. B. Whiting jPlumas 

W. B. C. Brown i Sacramento 

F. A. Thompson i Santa Barbara. . . 

— Waite |San Bernardino. . 

John M. Littlefield. . . . | Santa Clara 

Albert Brown Santa Cruz 

San Diego 

San Francisco . . . 
I San Joaquin 
San Luis Obispo , 

San Mateo , 

Shasta 

Sierra 

Siskiyou 



Geo. A. Pendleton. 
JohnHanna. ...... 

August Munter. . . 
Chas. W*. Dana. . . 

JohnE. Tate 

G. J. Taggart. . . . 
Harry Strange. . . 

A. Hawkins 

W. J. Costi&an Solano 

W. R. Morris j Sonoma . , 

L. B. Walthall ; Stanislaus 

S. S. Russell Sutter... 

Brit De Shields '< Tehama . 

John W. Philbrook Trinity . . 

W. F. Thomas. Tulare. . . 

R. E. Gardiner Tuolumne 

E. Bynum ; Yolo 

B. Eilerman Yuba . . . 



RESIDENCE. 



Lower Lake. 

Los Angeles. 

Susanville. 

San Rafael. 

Mariposa. 

Ukiah City. 

Snellings. 

Bridgeport. 

Monterey. 

Napa. 

Nevada, 

Auburn 

Quincy. 

Sacramento. 

Santa Barbara. 

San Bernardino. 

San Jose. 

Santa Cruz. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco. 

Stockton. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Redwood City. 

Shasta. 

Downievllle. 

Yreka. 

Fairfield. 

Santa Rosa. 

Knight's Ferry. 

Yuba City. 

Red Bluffs. 

Weaverville. 

Visalia, 

Sonora, 

Woodland. 

Marysville. 



EIST OF SENATORS AO ASSEMBLYMEN 

Of the California Eeglalature, Eighteenth *es*ion, which met In Saera- 
mento December 6th, 1369. 

SENATORS. 

E. M. Bauvard Placer i 

H. Beach Yuba 

11. J. Betge San Francisco 

W. Burnett Sonoma 

J. N. Chappell Shasta and Trinity 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 31 

A. Comte Sacramento 

J. Conly Butte, Plumas, and Lassen 

\V A. Coun San Diego and San Bernardino 

N. G. Curtis Sacramento 

J. T. Farley Amador and Alpine 

T. Fowler Fresno, Tulare, and Kern 

J. J. Green : Contra Costa and Marin 

W. M. Gwin Calaveras 

J. S. Hagar San Franeiscv, 

( '. \V. Hunter El Dorado 

S. 0. Ilutcliings ■ Sutter and Yuba 

W. Irwin Siskiyou 

I L Kincaid San Francisco and San Mateo 

II. Larkin El Dorado 

' J. II. Lawrence Mariposa, Merced, and Stanislaus 

E. J. Lewis Tehama and Colusa 

( '. Maclay Santa Clara 

', J. W. Mandeville Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 

F. A. McDougall Monterey and Santa Cruz 

; Wm. Minis Solano and Yolo 

| D. L. Morrill Calaveras 

L. H. Murck Del Norte, Humboldt, and Klamath 

M. B. O'Connor Nevada 

K. Pacheco San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 

W. VV. Pendegast Napa, Lake, and Mendocino 

G. C. Perkins Butte, Plumas, and Lassen 

N. M. Orr San Joaquin 

E. W. Roberts Nevada 

J. H. Saunders San Francisw 

E. Tompkins : Alameda 

II. Turner Sierra 

C. A. Tweed Placer 

T. N. Wand San Francisco 

B. D. Wilson Los Angeles 

S. Wing Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 

ASSEMBLYMEN. 

| A. It. Andrews Shasta 

i P. C. Appling Fresno 

C. P. Berry Sutter : 

j M. Biggs Butte 

! E. D. Luelling Alameda 

! J. A. Blankenship Monterey 

A. C. Brown Alpine and Amador 

J. E. Brown Yuba 

M. 1 1. Calderwood Placer 

J. II. Carothers '. Contra Costa 

M. F. Coronel Los Angeles 

3 . C. Crigler Lake and Napa 

f . Da Haven Humboldt 



y 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



E. W. Do&s Tulare and Kern 

J. Duffy Sacramento 

W. E. Eichelrotli Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 

A. G. Escandon ,...., San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 

S. J. Finney San Mateo 

H. Fortune San Francisco 

J. Freeman Sacramento 

R. C. Fryer Los Angeles 

C. Gildea ' El Dorado 

E. L. Green Calaveras 

J. Griswold San Francisco 

R. C. Haile Solano 

B. F. Hawley Nevada 

G. B. R. Hayes San Francisco 

M. Hayes ^ , San Francisco 

G. W. Henley Mendocino 

B. Henley Sonoma 

F. A. Hilin Santa Cruz 

M. Horan Sacramento 

C. G. Hubner San Joaquin 

T. Hudson Sonoma 

D. Inman Alameda 

J. M. Jolinson . ,-. . Amador and Alpine 

J. M. Kelly Yolo 

W. A. King Nevada 

J. Koutz Sierra 

J. Lambert Plumas and Lassen 

J. C. Martin Butte 

R. M. Martin : Siskiyou 

C. McClaskey Yuba 

C. McMillan San Francisco 

J. D. McMurray El Dorado 

J. McMurray Trinity 

G. Merritt. ' Yuba 

J. H. Miller El Dorado 

W. J. Miller. . . ;» Marin 

J. S. Mooney _. Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 

T. Moynilian San Francisco 

B. B. Munday ' Sonoma 

J. E. Murphy. Del Norte and Klamath 

B. D. Murpliy Santa Clara 

J. Naphtlialy San Francisco 

H. B. Newell El Dorado 

S. T. Oates Nevada 

W. O'Connell , San Francisco 

J. Odell Sacramento 

D. M. Pool , Mariposa 

M. Power Placer 

W. N. Robinson San Diego 

E. A. Rockwell San Francisco 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 33 

( i . M. Rogers San Francisco 

J. Ronier San Francisco 

T. Ryan San Francisco 

B. J. Summons Sierra 

•I . W, SatterwMte San Bernardino 

L. Scarce Colusa and Tehama 

W. Shoemaker Santa Clara 

W. Shores Siskiyou 

T. A. Slicer Nevada 

R. Stevens Sacramento 

T. R. Thomas Santa Clara 

J. H. Thurston San Joaquin 

M. Walden Merced and Stanislaus 

M. Waldron Placer 

W. S. Williams Calaveras 

F. York Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 

A. R. Young Calaveras 

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS. 

The three Congressional Districts of the State are distributed by 
counties as follows : 

First District. — The counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, San Ber- 
nardino, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, Inyo, Kern, Mon- 
terey, Fresno, Merced, Mariposa, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, 
San Mateo, and San Francisco. 

Second District. — The counties of Contra Costa, Alameda, San Joa- 
quin, Tuolumne, Mono, Calaveras, Amador, El Dorado, Sacramento, 
Placer, Nevada, and Alpine. 

Third District. — The counties of Marin, Sonoma, Napa, Lake, 
Solano, Yolo, Sierra, Yuba, Lassen, Butte, Plumas, Tehama, Colusa, 
Mendocino, Humboldt, Trinity, Shasta, Siskiyou, Klamath, and Del 
Norte. 

STATE JUDICIARY. 

Supreme Court. 

Residence. Term Expires. Salary. 

A. L. Rhodes, Chief Justice San Jose 1872. . . . $6,000 

S. W. Sanderson, Associate Sacramento 1876 6,000 

Royal T. Sprague, Associate Sacramento 1878 6,000 

J. B. Crockett, Associate Alameda 1874 6,000 

W. T. Wallace, Associate San Francisco 1880 6,000 

J. E. Hale, of Placer, is the Reporter of the Court, with a salary of 
$4,000 per annum ; and George Seckel, of Tuolumne County, the Clerk. 
District Judges. 

The District Judges are elected for a term of six years. Judges 
Robert F. Morrison, E. W. McKinstry, and S. H. Dwinelle, receive a 
salary of $6,000 each; Judge Reed,' $4,000; and each of the other 
Judges, $5,000 per annum. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 34 



First District. — Composed of San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 
Counties. Judge, Pablo de la Guerra, of Santa Barbara. Term ex- 
pires December 81st, 1875. 

Second District. — Composed of Butte, Lassen, Plumas, and Tehama 
Counties. Judge, Charles F. Lott. Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Third District — Composed of Alameda, Monterey, Santa Clara, and 
Santa Cruz Counties. Judge, Samuel B. McKee, of Oakland. Term 
expires December 2d, 1876. 

Fourth District. — Composed of a portion of San Francisco. Judge, 
R. F. Morrison, of San Francisco. Term expires, December 31st, 1875. 

Fifth District. — Composed of San Joaquin and Tuolumne Counties. 
Judge, S. H. Booker, of Stockton. Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Sixth District. — Composed of Sacramento and Yolo Counties. 
Judge, Lewis Ramage, of Sacramento. Term expires December 31st, 
1875. 

Seventh District. — Composed of Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, So- 
lano, and Sonoma Counties. Judge, W. C. Wallace, of Santa Rosa. 
Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Eighth District. — Composed of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Klamath. 
Counties. Judge, John P. Haynes, of Crescent City. Term expires, 
December 31st, 1S75. 

Ninth District. — Composed of. Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Coun- 
ties. Judge, — Roseborough, of Siskiyou. Term expires, December 
31st, 1875. 

Tenth District. — Composed of Colusa, Sierra, Sutter, and Yuba 
Counties. Judge, Phil. W. Keyser, of Yuba City. Term expires, De- 
cember 31st, 1875. 

Eleventh District. — Composed of Amador, Galaveras, and El Dorado 
Counties. Judge, A. S. Adams, of Jackson. Term expires, December 
31st, 1875. 

Twelfth District. — Composed of part of San Francisco and San Mateo 
Counties. Judge, E. W. McKinstry, of San Francisco. Term expires 
December 31st, 1875. 

Thirteenth District. — Composed of Fresno, Mariposa, Merced, Stanis- 
laus, and Tulare Counties. Judge, A. C. Bradford, of Mariposa. Term 
expires December 31st, 1875. 

Fourteenth District. — Composed of Nevada and Placer Counties. 
Judge, T. B. Reardon, Nevada. Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Fifteenth District. — Composed of Contra Costa and part of San 
Francisco. Judge, S. H. Dwindle. Term expires Dec. 31st, 1871. 

Sixteenth District. — Composed of Alpine, Inyo, Kern, and Mono 
Counties. Judge, Theron Reed. Term expires December 31st, 1871. 

Seventeenth District. — Composed of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
and San Diego Counties. Judge, Murray Morrison, of Los Angeletj. 
Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

San Francisco Courts. 

Fourth District Robert Morrison, Judge 

Twelfth District E. W. McKinstry, Judge 

Fifteenth District S. H. Dwinelle, Judge 



35 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

County Court (Vacancy) 

Probate Court . . . . t S. S. Wright, Judge 

Police Court W. D. Sawyer, Judge 



IXDUSTKIAL SCHOOL.. 

President Charles D. Carter. | Vice-President. . .Edward Bosqui. 

Managers — Benj. D. Dean, M.D.; Jacob Deeth, Edward Nunan, P. H. 
Canavan, Henry Winkle, Wm. H. L. Barnes, Henry II. Haight, James 
Laidley, John Swett, 11. X. Van Brunt, Edward Martin, A. F. Durney, 
H. L. Davis, J. R. Kelly, Richard O'Neill. Secretary— Jas. S. Thom- 
son. Treasurer — Henry A. Cobb. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

J. C. Pelton, Superintendent ; John Doran, Deputy Superintendent 
and Principal Teacher ; Henry Haven, Assistant Teacher ; James F. 
Orem, Janitor ; Thomas P. Wall, Assistant Janitor ; Henry C. Cas- 
tello, Assistant Janitor ; Charles E. Hutckins, Farmer ; Lemuel W. 
Hutchins, Assistant Farmer ; Allen Carr, Gardener ; James P. Still, 
Watchman ; James Noble, Foreman of Shoe-shop - r John S. Kenny, 
Foreman of Tailor-shop ; John Hilliard, Carpenter ; Terrence Mona- 
ghan, Cook ; Miss Mary O'Brien, Nurse; Miss Margaret Kenny, Seam- 
stress ; Mrs. Margaret Wall, Laundress ; Washington Elliot, Music 
Teacher; Benj. D. Dean, Physician. 



THF PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF SAX FKAXCISCO. 

The following facts relating to the Public Schools of San Francisco, 
are compiled from the annual report of Superintendent Denman, for 
the year ending June 80, 1869 : 

Whole number of youth in the city, between the ages of six and 
fifteen years of age, entitled to the benefit of the school fimd, 25,785 ; 
under fifteen years of age, 41,488; whole number of pupils enrolled 
during the year in all the public schools, 19,885 ; average daily attend- 
ance, 13,113. 

Whole number of schools of all grades in the city, 44 ; the attend- 
ance at which were as follows : Whole number in attendance at Boys' 
High School during the year, 136 ; average daily attendance, 113 7-10. 
Of this number, 42 were instructed in Latin and Greek ; fifteeen grad- 
uated and received diplomas. Whole number of pupils enrolled in 
Girls' High School, 140 ; average daily attendance, 118 8-10 ; num- 
ber of graduates, 18. Whole number of pupils enrolled in the Grammar 
Schools, 4,414 ; average daily attendance, 3,171. Whole number of 
pupils enrolled in primary schools during the year, 14,872 ; average 
daily attendance, 9,448 7-10. Whole number of teachers, 326. 

Cost of conducting the schools during the year, $400,213.12; 
increase over year previous, $23,821.12; current expenses, $325,915.18; 
amount paid for teachers' salaries, $271,567.09. 

General school tax for 1868-9 upon every hundred dollars' valuation; 
35 cents ; building tax upon one hundred dollars' valuation, 5 cents , 



36 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

total amount raised for school purposes for 1868-9, $459,853.70; 
increase for the year, $119,897. 

There are four Cosmopolitan Schools in which French and German 
are taught, with 2,842 pupils enrolled ; average daily attendance, 
1,884 2-10. There are also 18 night classes, one Chinese and one Col- 
ored school, supported from the general fund of the department. The 
Chinese school has 277 pupils enrolled; average daily attendance 
29 1-2. There are 91 enrolled pupils in the Colored schools ; average 
daily attendance, 25 6-10. 

Attached to the Department are sixteen libraries, distributed as 
follows : 

Teachers' library in Rooms of Eoard of Education, 1,500 volumes ; 
Boys' High School, 371 volumes ; Girls' High School, 250 volumes ; 
Lincoln Grammar School, 691 volumes; Denman Grammar School, 
400 volumes ; Rincon Grammar School, 245 volumes ; Washington 
Grammar School, 400 volumes ; Union Grammar School, 213 volumes ; 
Cosmopolitan Grammar School, 320 volumes ; Shotwell street School, 
154 volumes ; Tenth street -School, 2 volumes ; Spring Valley Gram- 
mar School, 137 volumes ; Broadway Grammar School, 150 volumes ; 
City Training School, 15 volumes; Mission Grammar School, 170 
volumes ; North Cosmopolitan School, 240 volumes ; total number of 

volumes, 5,258. 

*-%-• 

I»OPTrr,ATI01V OF THE WOBID, 

There is difference of opinion, even among the best authorities, as 
to the number of people who inhabit the globe. There is a general 
concurrence in the belief that it exceeds a thousand millions, which 
may be classified into countries and religions as follows : 
COUNTRIES. 

North America 50,000,000 

South America 18,000,000 

Africa 75,000,000 

Asia 600,000,000 

Australia and Oceanica 3,000,000 

Europe 270,000,000 

Total 1,016,000,000 

RELIGIONS. 

Christian •• • .330,000,000 

Mohammedan 100,000,000 

Boodhist 350,000,000 

Brahmin 100,000,000 

Pagan 130,000,000 

Jewish 6,000,000 

Total 1,016,000,000 



The taxes delinquent of the city and county of San Francisco, from 
the year 1862, amount to the estimated sum of $3,675,874.75. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



37 



EXPORT OF TREASURE FROM SAX FRANCISCO, 

During the Sixteen Years ending 1869. 



Years. 


To Eastern 
Ports. 


To 
England. 


To China. 


To other 
Countries. 


Total. 


1854 


946,688,166 


$ 3,781,080 


$ 965,887 


$ 755,500 


$52,045,633 


1868 


88,780,564 


5,182,156 




359,836 


45,161,731 


1856 


89.C 


8,ii!;.;,j-.(i 


1,808,852 


827,000 


50,697,434 


1867 


86,531,778 


9,347,748 


2,993,264 


1,103,907 


48,970,697 


1858 


85,891,236 




1,916,007 


475,044 


47,548,026 


1860 


1 16,487 


8,910,930 


3,119,766 


482,339 


47,640,402 


1860 




2,672.936 


3,374,680 


559,004 


■ 42,325,916 


1861 


82,628,611 


4,061,779 


3,541,279 


445.G89 


40,670,758 


1882 


26,194,035 


12.9L0.140 


2,660,754 


756,832 


42,561,761 


1663 


I').:;- ■ 




4,200,370 


3,008,963- 


46,071,920 


1864 


17,816,121 


29,410,921 


7,532,865 


942,513 


55,202,422 


1S(>'> 


■l<.wr,.:;i4 


1 t;.-j -j 


6,913,092 


1,292,743 


45,484,545 


1866 


41,270,634 


6,565,510 


6,533,084 


1.777,518 


50.140,777 


1867 


22,611,150 


5,633,507 


9. 127, WW 


3.272.5:s2 


40,053,788 


1868 


29,311,778 


661,421 


3,693,067 


1,203,990 


34,870,256 


1869 (10 mo.) 


6,864,226 


9,153,3:4 


3,285,283 


6,332,851 


25,635,714 


Totals 


479,428.379 


155,983,547 


62,092,123 


23,595,791 


721,099,840 



FOREIGN CONSULS RESIDING AT SAN FRANCISCO. 

Austria R. Hochkoner, 205 Front street 

Baden H. Hanssmann, 122 California street 

Bavaria C. F. Mebius, 421 Battery street 

Belgium E. Grisar, corner of Broadway and Sansome street 

Chile Henry Barroilliet, 535 Clay street 

Costa Rica. . . S. II. Green (Absent) 

Denmark G. O'Hara Taaffe, 432 California street 

Ecuador Daniel Wolf (Absent) 

France Emile Belcour (Vice), 434 Jackson street 

Guatemala S. H. Green (Absent) 

Great Britain W. L. Booker, 411 California street 

Hawaiian Islands H. W. Severance, 405 Front street 

Hessia L. Gottig (Acting), 220 Front street 

Honduras Wm. V. Wells, 700 California street 

Italy G. B. Cerruti, 1415 Powell street 

Japan C. W. Brooks, corner California and Davis streets 

Manzanillo William Smith (Acting), 905 Bush street 

Mexico Dr. Isaac Rivas, 655 Washington street 

Netherlands J. DeFremery, 710 Sansome street 

Nicaragua 

North German Union C. A, C. Duisenberg, 314 Sacramento street 

Norway G. C. Johnson, 33 Battery street 

Peru Mateo Ramirez, 314 Bush street 

Portugal John Searle (Acting), McAllister street, near Filbert 

Russia M. Klinkofstrom, N.E. corner Front and Commercial 

San Salvador B. J. Dorsey, Merchants' Exchange 

Spain C. Martin, 421 California street 

Sweden George C. Johnson, 33 Battery street 

Switzerland Francis Berton, 527 Clay street 

United States of Colombia F. Herrera, 126 Second street 

Wurteinburg I. Wormser, cor. California and Front streets 



38 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

SAN FRANCISCO MANUFACTURES. 

The report of Mr. Harris, Surveyor of the city and county of San 
Francisco, is very minute in its description of our local manufactures. 
We obtain from it many of the particulars given below. 

WOOLEN MILLS. 

The city contains three woolen mills, two of which manufacture 
blankets, flannels, jeans, and cloths. The third is chiefly engaged in 
the fabrication of under- wear and hosiery (Marysville and Sacramento 
also contain one woolen mill each). Our city mills employ 750 hands, 
mostly Chinamen. They run 29 sets of cards, 40 mules and jacks, 122 
looms, and 11,000 spindles. In the last year they made 94,500 pairs 
of blankets, 161,600 yards of broadcloth, cassimeres, and tweeds ; 845 
yards flannel, 10,000 dozens flannel shirts and drawers, and used 
8,250,000 pounds of wool. The Mission and Pacific Mills were con- 
solidated by incorporation during the past year. 

SUGAR REFINERIES 

There are three sugar refineries, which employ nearly 300 men. 
During the year they refined 20,254,000 pounds of sugar, and made 
627,000 gallons of syrup — using for these purposes 23,160,000 pounds 
of the raw material. Sugar, in great abundance, can be procured at 
the Hawaiian Islands ; but in a short time, it is predicted, the article 
will be furnished, in limited quantities, of California growth. 

TANNERIES. 

One of the largest tanneries and boot-and-shoe manufactories on the 
Coast — the " Pacific" — was compelled to close doors and suspend busi- 
ness, on account of a strike for higher wages among the workmen. 
Their business would not justify the payment of the rates demanded. 
There are still fifteen tanneries within the city limits, however, which 
tan about 17,500 hides of all descriptions per year. 

SOAP. 

Sixteen factories employ 60 men, manufacture 4,032,000 pounds of 
soap, and 225,000 pounds of washing powder. An extensive business 
is also done in the manufacture of washing fluids, of which we are 
not prepared to give the enumeration. 

WOODEN-WARE AND BROOMS. 

Seven manufactories turn out pails, tubs, washboards, barrel-covers, 
sieves, broom-handles, and other fabrics, such as powder-kegs, syrup- 
kegs, etc., etc., to the number of over 92,000. About 66 men are em- 
ployed in the business. 

TUBS AND PAILS. 

The articles thus designated are separately classified, with 20 men 
engaged in their manufacture. The product in barrel-covers, salt- 
boxes, sieves, pails, tubs, and kegs of all kinds, is equal to 59,140. 

TRUNKS. 

The value of these manufactures, from two establishments, is put 
down at $37,000 for the year. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 39 

STAVES. 

3,000 staves per day, (with 22 men employed,) are turned out at one 
factory . 

TOOLS AND FILES. 

Two establishments manfuacture about $5,500 worth of files and 
other tools, a year. 

WIRE GOODS, 

$25,000 is the estimate of the wire goods made. 

PIANOS. 
The number of pianos made, at four factories, the past year, was 
about 152 ; the average value of each instrument, $350. 

SASHES AND DOORS. 

Seven manufactories ; 261 men employed ; value of product, $773,000. 

SAWS. 

One factory; 35 men employed ; value of manufactures, $70,000. 

SALT. 

Five mills ; 35 men employed ; 4,500 tons of domestic salt ground, 
and 2,800 tons of foreign. 

MATCHES 

Five factories ; 43 men employed ; number of gross turned out, 95,000. 

LASTS. 

$7,000 worth of boot-and-shoe lasts is made at one establishment. 

HOSE AND BELTING. 

Two factories ; 17 men employed ; 14,000 feet of hose made ; 75,000 
feet of belting ; 500 dozen horse-collars ; and 50,000 feet of collar- 
leather used. 

IRON-FOUNDRIES AND BOILER-SHOPS. 

This is a large and important industrial interest. There are nine- 
teen different establishments, which employ 1,093 hands. Pig iron 
used, 9,880 tons ; bar iron used, 1,854 tons ; sheet and boiler-iron used, 
2,904 tons ; rivets of iron used, 199 tons. 

GLUE. 

There is but one establishment, very successful in its operations. 
Men employed, 20 ; tons of glue made, 500 ; gallons of neat's-foot oil 
made, 5,000 ; pounds of curled hair turned out, 20,000 ; capacity, per 
day, for glue, 30 tons ; capacity per day, for oil, 200 gallons. 

CIGARS. 

Seventy manufactories ; men employed, 1,232 ; monthly capacity, 
3,500,000 ; number of cigars made per month, 38,692,000. 

FLOUR MILLS. 

Men employed at twelve miils, 134; aggregate daily capacity of 
mills, in barrels of flour, 2,005 ; tons of all kinds of grain ground, 
6,343 ; run of stone, 45. 



40 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

FURNITURE. 

Eight manufactories ; men employed, 138 ; value of manufactures, 
$170,000. A large number of workmen are employed in the different 
furniture establishments, as upholsterers, varnishers, setters-up of fur- 
niture, etc. It would not, perhaps, be unsafe to say that the different 
factories give employment, in various capacities, to fully a thousand men. 

BOXES. 

Five manufactories ; men emploved, 169 ; feet of lumber used, 5,600,- 
000 ; Spanish cedar used, 160,000 feet. 

BILLIARD TABLES7 

Three factories, turning out nearly a hundred tables per year, at an 
average value of $450. 

CHEMICALS. 

Three factories ; men employed, 15 ; tons of nitrate of soda used, 
250 ; tons of sulphur consumed, 450 ; capacity of works, in tons of 
nitric acid per day, 1 ; capacity for tons of sulphuric acid, per day, 4 ; 
tons of sulphate of copper made, 125. 

GOLD AND SILVER REFINERY. 

One refinery, with five men employed ; ounces of gold and silver 
refined, per annum, 1,500,000. 

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES. 
One axle-grease factory, using 1,000 barrels rosin and 12,000 pounds 
of butter. One bellows-shop, manufacturing $10,000 worth of bellows 
per year. Five brass-foundries, employing 85 men, and turning out 
$143,000 worth of manufactures per year. Three boot-and-shoe 
establishments, employing 122 men, and producing manufactures 
worth $160,000. Twenty-one breweries, employing 153 men, and 
manufacturing 120,300 barrels of beer per annum ; monthly capacity, 
in barrels, 9,750. One candle-factory, with a capacity to produce 35,- 
000 boxes of candles per year ; boxes of candles actually made, 15,000. 
One cordage factory, employing 50 hands ; using 1,500 tons of hemp 
per year, with a capacity to consume 1,750 tons. One glass-works, 
employing about 50 men ; value of products not reported. Two 
glass-cutting shops ; value of manufactures, $8,500. Eleven hat-and 
cap establishments, employing 26 men ; hats made, annually, 510 
dozens ; caps, 1,400 dozens. Seven iron-door-, shutter- and safe-shops, 
employing 84 men ; tons of sheet iron used, 542 ; tons of bar iron 
used, 589 ; ions of cast iron used, 9 ; tons of cast steel used, 4. One 
shot-tower and lead- works, employing 18 jnen ; tons of lead manufac- 
tured, 900 ; tons of shot cast, 200 ; capacity of works per year, in tons, 
2,000. One linseed-oil factory, using 300 tons of flax-seed, and making 
25,000 gallons of oil. Six malt-factories, employing 18 men; one- 
hundred-pound sacks of barley malted, 68,250. One factory for silver- 
ing mirrors ; value of manufactures, $20,000. One rolling-mill, em- 
ploying 58 hands ; no further returns. Eight saw-mills, employing 
380 men, with 49 saws, and sawing 24,200,000 feet of lumber per year. 



A I TA OA L TFORNL 1 A LMANAC. 



41 



One type-foundry, employing 35 men ; value of manufactures, $28,000. 
Four vinegar establishments, turning out 80,000 gallons vinegar per 
year. * 

REMARKS. 

A great many other industries flourish in the city, of which no defi- 
nite retam Las been made, and which, consequently, in the absence of 
correct data, are not reported. The figures given above can hardly 
be considered more than proximate, falling very largely below the 
fact. There is no means by which information, considered contraband 
by its possessor, can be obtained from him, and the gatherer of statis- 
tics has therefore to rely considerably upon his own judgment, which 
is often defective, because the means are denied him to allow it free 
exercise. Much information of a general character, withheld from 
these pages, will be found in the " History of Productions throughout 
the State," presented by counties. It will be observed that wines, 
brandies, vermicelli, coffee, spices, silver-plating, cutlery, jewelry, 
silver- ware, agricultural implements, bonnets and bonnet-frames, dif- 
ferent kinds of tailoring and millinery, and gold-beating, are all 
omitted from the enumeration above presented. Several of these 
industries are extensive and important, but, as no retiirns have been 
made of their operations, we pass them over. 



We must Manufacture More. — The absence of manufacturing 
facilities in California makes us in a large degree dependent upon the 
Atlantic cities and foreign countries for articles of every-day consump- 
tion. A correspondent of this work writes : " When it is' seen what 
amount of capital we pay yearly for imports of articles we might 
manufacture within ourselves, it should awaken the attention of that 
portion of the community who are always harping upon a scarcity of 
home capital. Let them use greater efforts to retain the capital we 
have, by fostering local industries, and thus stopping the constant 
drain which operates so seriously to our injury. In order to become 
great and prosperous, we must be self-sustaining. For example : We 
are every year shipping hence immense quantities of tallow, and im- 
porting the candles into which it is moulded — with the profits, interest 
and exchange against us. We import refined sugar, with the raw 
material at our very doors, and the capabilities available to refine 
much greater quantities than are demanded for home consumption ; 
we also export large quantities of quicksilver to China, where it is 
manufactured into vermillion and brought back to us to be sold, at 
enormous rates. Now, we have plenty of sulphur — a principal ingre- 
dient of vermillion — for which there is little demand, and it could be 
used in the manufacture of vermillion, which always finds a ready 
market. These are only a few instances of our prodigality and want 
of forethought in commercial affairs. To be sure, something can be 
said about our inability to compete with cheaper labor, but there are 
cases in which this argument will not apply. The difference can 
hardly be so great as the sums we pay in freights, difference of ex- 
change, damage, etc., etc., and it behooves our people to give more 
attention to this subject as one eminently worthy of examination." 



42 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



THE INFEUEXCE OF FORESTS.' 

The influence of forests, in reference to rain, lias been established by 
numerous observations. Columbus mentions it in his "Journal of the 
Voyage to America," where he attributes to the density and extent of 
the forests that covered the mountain sides the abundance of rain to 
which he was so long exposed while coasting along the shores of 
Jamaica. He remarks that " formerly rain was no less abundant at 
Madeira and on the Canaries and Azores, but since the trees that gave 
shade have been cut down, it has become much less frequent in those 
countries." 

Humboldt demonstrates that there exists a frigorific radiation above 
wooded regions, that must condense the vapors. The summits of 
mountains covered with forests become enveloped in mists oftener 
than those of mountains that are bare, and springs of water are more 
frequently found among them. Numerous plantations of trees in 
Egypt have caused the rains that had totally ceased to re appear — a 
fact that deserves especial mention. In some parts of the Antilles, the 
clearing of portions of the soil has diminished the quantity of rain, 
and the watercourses have lost their abundance. 

At Porto Rico a different plan has been pursued. A decree of the 
King of Spain prescribed that, every time a tree should be cut down, 
three should be planted for it, and the country has consequently 
retained its high fertility. The beauty of the soil and the abundance 
of water have left the land more productive than on the adjacent 
islands. 

We extract from the scientific work of M. Boussingault a passage 
confirming the existence of similar relations between the clearing 
away of the woods and the quantity of water : "In the valley of 
Cauca," he says, "it is well known that such and such a district, 
whose soil and medium temperature are favorable to the cultivation of 
the cacao-tree, still gives no good result if the latter be placed too 
near to the forest ; but when these forest-lands are cleared, and trans- 
formed to fields of yucca, sugar-cane, and maize, the cacao-tree flour- 
ishes remarkably. The following fact was obtained from Don Sebas- 
tian Marisansena, a resident of Cartago. Having procured the title of 
capitan poblador to found a village at La Balsa, at the foot of the 
Quindin range, he began by putting in a plantation of cocoa-trees. 
During the first ten years the crops amounted to little or nothing, be- 
cause the rains were too frequent. The hacienda, or farm, began to 
be productive only when the inhabitants of La Balsa were numerous 
enough to make the clearings extensive. Then at length the sun 
could ripen the cacao. In 1816, political events led to a large emigra- 
tion of the people, only the negroes remaining on the farm. Six years 
later, the surrounding fields were again transformed to forests ; the 
crops diminished more and more, and in 1827, when I passed through 
La Balsa, they had not gathered any cacao for three years." 



City Debt.— The funded debt of the city and county of San Fran- 
cisco, outstanding to date, is $4,709,100. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



43 



Tourist'* Route to Yosemlte Valley. 

From San Francisco to Stockton 175 Miles. 

FROM STOCKTON 



To Twelve-Mile Farm 12 



To Knight's Ferry. 
To Chinese Camp. 
To Jacksonville . . . 
To Steven's Ear. . 
To Munn's Store. . 
To Kirkwood's. . . . 

To Oak Flat 

To First Garote. . . 



To Second Garote 2 

To Sprague's Ranch 5 

To Harding's Mills 11 

To Big Trees 11 

To Tamerack Flat 3 

To Hutching's Hotel, in Val'y 7 

Total miles 200 



THE FIRST RECORDED GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 

Previous to the 79th year of the first century of the Christian era, 
but little was known of the history of earthquakes. It was then, on 
the night of the 24th of August, that Vesuvius " commenced to thun- 
der, making the whole country to reel and totter." The shocks thus 
inaugurated continued at intervals for sixteen years. The eruptions 
from Vesuvius overspread the fairest portions of the Campania of 
Southern Italy, sending whole rivers of lava down into the Bay of 
Naples. It was by these eruptions that Pompeii and Herculaneum 
were destroyed, the former being overwhelmed with ashes, and the 
latter concreted in mud. 

Pliny, the elder, who sailed from Misenum with his fleet, to aid the 
sufferers, was prevented from landing by the falling fragments and a fear 
that the retreat of the sea would leave his vessels stranded. He there- 
fore shaped his course for Stabile, ten miles distant from the scene of 
the eruption, on a visit to his friend Pomponianus. It was here, 
joined by Pomponianus and others, in an attempted retreat from the 
descending missiles, smoke, dust and ashes, that he fell down and 
expired from suffocation. 

The younger Pliny furnishes a graphic description of the effect of 
the various shocks as felt at Mesenum, where at the time he was 
residing with his mother. The whole population rushed into the 
streets, and forming an irregular multitude, pressed forward to 
avoid the destruction which seemed momentarily impending. Pliny 
having hold of his mother's hand, was of the number. Darkness 
enveloped the earth — "not that of a cloudy night, but of a room shut 
up, and the lights extinguished." The shrieks of women and child- 
ren drowned all other voices; "some wishing to die from the very 
fear of dying ; some lifting their hands to the gods, but the greater 
part imagining that the last eternal night had come, which was to 
destroy the gods and the world together." Though the darkness 
cleared away, the shocks of earthquake continued, the mountain of 
Vesuvius in the meantime vomiting forth flame, lava, stones, dust 
and ashes, which were spread broad-cast over the Campania, producing 
those terrible effects already narrated. 



44 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

SCHEDTJEE OP STAMP DUTIES, FROM MAECH 1, 1867. 

Stamp Duty. 

Accidental Injuries to persons, tickets or contracts for in- 
surance against exempt 

Affidavits exempt 

Agreement or contract not otherwise specified : 

For every sheet or piece of paper upon which either of the 

same shall he written $0 05 

Agreement, renewal of, same stamp as original instrument . 

Appraisement of value or damage, or for any other purpose : 

For each sheet of paper on which it is written 5 

Assignment of a Lease, same stamp as original, and addi- 
tional stamp upon the value or consideration of transfer,, 
according to the rates of stamps on deeds. (See Conveyance.) 

Assignment of Policy of Insurance, same stamp as ori- 
ginal instrument. (See Insurance.) 

Assignment of Mortgage, same stamp as that required 
upon a mortgage for the amount remaining unpaid. (See 
Mortgage.) 

Bank Check, draft, or order for any sum of money drawn 
upon any hank, banker, or trust company, at sight or on 
demand 2 

When drawn upon any other person or persons, companies or 
corporations, for any sum exceeding $10, at sight or on de- 
mand 2 

Bill of Exchange (inland), draft or order for the payment of 
any sum of money not exceeding $100, otherwise than at 
sight or on demand, or any promissory note, or any memor- 
andum, check, receipt, or other written or printed evidence 
of an amount of money to be paid on demand or at a time 
designated : For a sum not exceeding $100 5 

And for every additional $100, or fractional part thereof, in 
excess of $100. . . . o 5 

BrLL of Exchange (foreign), or letter of credit drawn in, but 
payable out of, the United States : If drawn singly, same 
rates of duty as inland bills of exchange or promissory 
notes. If drawn in sets of three or more, for every bill of 
each set, where the sum made payable shall not exceed 
$100, or the equivalent thereof, in any foreign currency. . . 2 

And for every additional $100, or fractional part thereof, in 
excess of $100 2 

Bell of Lading or receipt (other than charter party) for any 
goods, merchandise, or effects to be exported from a port or 
place in the United, States to any foreign port or place 10 

Bill of Lading to any port in British North America exempt 

Bill of Lading, domestic or inland exempt 

Bell of Sale by which any ship or vessel, or any part there- 
of, shall be conveyed to or vested in any other person or 
persons : When the consideration shall not exceed $500. . . $0 50 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 45 

Exceeding $500, and not exceeding $1,000 1 .00 

Exceeding $1,000, for every additional amount of $500 or 

fractional part thereof # . . 50 

Bond for indemnifying any person for the payment of any 
sum of money : When the money ultimately recoverable 

thereupon is $1,000 or less , 50 

WHen in excess of $1,000, for each $1,000 or fraction 50 

Bond- administrator or guardian, when the value of the es- 
tate and effects, real and personal, does not exceed $1,000. . exempt 

Exceeding $1,000 $1 00 

Bond for due execution or performance of duties of office. ... 1 00 
Bond, personal, for security for the payment of money. (See 

Mortgage.) 
Bond of any description, other than such as may be required 
in legal proceedings, or used in connection with mortgage- 
deeds, and not otherwise charged in this schedule 25 

Brokers' Notes. (See Contract.) 

Certificates of Measurement or weight of animals, wood, 

coal, or hay exempt 

Certificates of Measurement of other articles $0 05 

Certificates of Stock in any incorporated company 25 

Certificates of Profits, or any certificate or memorandum 
showing an interest in the property or accumulations of 
any incorporated company : If for a sum not less than $10, 

and not exceeding $50 10 

Exceeding $50 and not exceeding $1,000 25 

Exceeding $1,000, for every additional $1,000 or fractional 

part thereof 25 

Certificate. Any certificate of damage or otherwise, and 
all other certificates or documents issued by any port- 
warden, marine surveyor, or other person acting as such . . 25 
Certificate of Deposit of any sum of money in any bank 
or trust company, or with any banker or person acting as 

such : If for a sum not exceeding $100 2 

For a sum exceeding $100 , 5 

Certificate of any other description than those specified ... 5 

Charter, renewal of, same stamp as on original instrument. 
Charter-party for the charter of any ship or vessel, or 
steamer, or any letter, memorandum, or other writing re- 
lating to the charter, er any renewal or transfer thereof : If 
the registered tonnage of such ship or vessel, or steamer, 

does not exceed 150 tons 1 00 

Exceeding 150 tons, and not exceeding 300 tons 3 00 

Exceeding 300 tons, and not exceeding GOO tons 5 00 

Exceeding GOO tons. 10 00 

Check. Bank check 2 

Contract. Brokers' note, or memorandum of sale of any 
goods or merchandise, exchange, real estate, or property of 
any kind or description issued by brokers or persons acting 
as such : For each note or memorandum of sale 10 



46 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Bill or memorandum of the sale or contract for the sale of 
stocks, bonds, gold or silver "bullion, coin, promissory notes, 
or other securities made by brokers, banks or bankers, either 
for the benefit of others or on their own account : For each 
hundred dollars, or fractional part thereof, of the amount of 
such sale or contract 1 

Bill or memorandum of the sale or contract for the sale of 
stocks, bonds, gold or silver bullion, coin, promissory notes 
or other securities, not his or their own property, made by 
any person, firm or company not paying a special tax as 
broker, bank, or banker : For each hundred dollars, or frac- 
tional part thereof, of the amount of such sale or contract . 5 

Contract. (See Agreement.) 

Contract, renewal of, same stamp as original instrument. 

Conveyance, deed, instrument, or writing, whereby any 
lands, tenements, or other realty sold, shall be granted, as- 
signed, transferred, or otherwise conveyed to or vested in 
the purchaser or purchasers, or any other person or persons, 
by his, her, or their direction, when the consideration or 
value does not exceed $500 50 

When the consideration exceeds $500, and does not exceed 
$1,000 1 00 

And for every additional $500, or fractional part thereof, in 

excess of $1,000 50 

Conveyance. The acknowledgment of a deed, or proof by a 
witness exempt 

Conveyance. Certificate of record of a deed exempt 

Credit, Letter of. Same as foreign bill of exchange. 

Custom-house Entry. (See Entry.) 

Custom-house Withdrawals. (See Entry.) 

Deed. (See Conveyance — Trust deed.) 

Draft. Same as inland bill of exchange. 

Endorsement of any negotiable instrument exempt 

Entry of any goods, wares, or merchandise at any custom- 
house, either for consumption or warehousing : Not ex- 
ceeding $100 in value $0 25 

Exceeding $100, and not exceeding $500 in value 50 

Exceeding $500 in value 1 00 

Entry for the withdrawal of any goods or merchandise from 

bonded warehouse 50 

G auger's Returns exempt 

Indorsement upon a stamped obligation in acknowledgment 

of its fulfilment exempt 

Insurance (Me) policy : When the amount insured shall not 

exceed $1,000 $0 25 

Exceeding $i,000, and not exceeding $5,000 50 

Exceeding $5,000 1 00 

Insurance (marine, inland, and fire) policies, or renewal of 
the same : If the premium does not exceed $10 10 

Exceeding $10, and not exceeding $50 25 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMAXAC. 47 

Exceeding $50 50 

brsiTBANCE contracts or tickets against accidental injuries to 

persons exempt 

Lease, agreement, memorandum, or contract for the hire, 

age, or rent of any land, tenement, or portion thereof: 

Where the rent or rental value is $300 per annum or less. 50 

Where the rent or rental value exceeds the sum of $300 per 

annum, for each additional $200, or fractional part thereof, 

in excess of $300 50 

LEGAL Documents: Writ, or other original process, hy 
which any suit, cither criminal or civil, is commenced in 

any court, either of law or equity. . exempt 

Confession of judgment or cognovit exempt 

Writs or other process on appeals from justice courts or other 

courts of inferior jurisdiction to a court of record exempt 

Warrant of distress exempt 

Letters of Administration. (See Probate of Will.) 
Letters TESTAMENTARY, when the value of the estate and 

effects, real and personal, does not exceed $1,000 exempt 

Exceeding $1,000 $0 05 

Letters of Credit. Same as Bill of Exchange (foreign). 
Manifest for custom-house entry or clearance of the cargo of 
any ship, vessel, or steamer, for aforeign port : If the regis- 
tered tonnage of such ship, vessel, or steamer, does not ex- 
ceed 300 tons , 1 00 

Exceeding 300 tons, and not exceeding 600 tons 3 00 

Exceeding GOO tons 5 00 

[These provisions do not apply to vessels or steain-boata 
plying between ports of the United States and British 
North America.] 

Measurers' returns exempt 

Memorandum of Sale, or broker's note. (See Contract.) 
Mortgage of Lands, estate, or property, real or personal, 
heritable or movable, whatsoever, a trust deed in the na- 
ture of a mortgage, or any personal bond given as security 
for the payment of any definite or certain sum of money ; 

exceeding $100, and not exceeding $500 $0 50 

Exceeding $500, and not exceeding $1,000 1 00 

And for every additional $500, or fractional part thereof, in 

excess of $1,000 50 

Order for payment of money, if the amount is $10 or over. 2 

Passage Ticket on any vessel from a port in the United 

States to a foreign port, not exceeding $35 50 

Exceeding $35, and not exceeding $50 1 00 

And for every additional $50, or fractional part thereof, in ex- 
cess of $50 1 00 

Pawners' Checks $0 05 

Power of Attorney for the sale or transfer of any stock, 
bonds, or scrip, or for the collection of any dividends or 
interest thereon $0 25 



48 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Passage tickets to ports in British. North America exempt 

Power of Attorney, or prosy, for voting at any election 
for officers of any incorporated company or society, except 
religious, charitable, or literary societies, or public ceme- 
teries 10 

Power op Attorney to receive or collect rent 25 

Power of Attorney to sell and convey real estate, or to 

rent or lease the same 1 00 

Power of Attorney for any other purpose 50 

Probate of Will, or letters of administration ; where the 
estate and effects for or in respect of which such probate or 
letters of administration applied for shall be sworn or 

declared not to exceed the value of $1,000 exempt. 

Exceeding $1,000, and not exceeding $2,000 1 00 

Exceeding $2,000, for every additional $1,000, or fractional 

part thereof, in excess of $2,000 50 

Promissory Note. (See Bill of Exchange, inland.) 
Deposit note to mutual insurance companies, when policy is 

subject to duty ~. exempt. 

Renewal of a note, subject to the same duty as an original note. 
Protest of note, bill of exchange, acceptance, check, or 

draft, or any marine protest 25 

Quit-claim Deed to be stamped as a conveyance, except 
when given as a release of a mortgage by the mortgagee 
to the mortgagor, in which case it is exempt ; but if it con- 
tains covenants may be subject as an agreement or con- 
tract 
Receipt for satisfaction of any mortgage or judgment or de- 
cree of any court exempt 

Receipts for any sum of money or for the payment of any 
debt, or for a draft or other instrument given for the pay- 
ment of money ; exceeding $20, not being for satisfaction 

of any mortgage or judgment or decree of court $0 02 

(See Indorsement.) 

Receipts for the delivery of property exempt 

Renewal of Agreement, contract or charter, by letter - or 
otherwise, same stamp as original instrument. 

Sheriff's Return on writ, or other process exempt 

Trust Deed, made to secure a debt, to be stamped as a 
mortgage. 

Warehouse Receipts exempt 

Warrant of Attorney accompanying a bond or note, if the 

bond or note is stamped exempt 

Weighers' Returns exempt 

Official documents, instruments, and papers issued by officers 

of the United States Government exempt 

Official documents, instruments, and papers issued by the offi- 
cers of any State, county, town, or other municipal corpora- 
tion, in the exercise of functions strictly belonging to them 
in their ordinary governmental or municipal capacity exempt 



V ■ 



ALT A CALIFOUXIA ALMANAC. 



49 



Papers necessary to be used for the collection from the United 
States Government, of claims by soldiers, or their legal 
representatives, for pensions, back pay, bounty, or for pro- 
perty lost in the service exempt 



CANCELLATION. 

In all cases where adhesive stamps are used for denoting the tax 
upon an instrument, the person or party using or affixing them must 
so affix them that the entire surface of each and every stamp shall be 
exposed to view, and must cancel them by writing or imprinting upon 
each stamp, icitli ink, the initials of his name, and the date (year, 
month, and day) on which the same is attached or used. 

When stamps are printed upon checks, etc., so that in filling up the 
instrument the face of the stamp is, and must necessarily be, written 
across, no other cancellation will be required. 

All cancellation must be distinct and legible, and, except in the case 
of proprietary stamps from private dies, no method which differs from 
that above described can be recognized as legal and sufficient for 
stamps under Schedules B and C. 



schedule <>f stamp duties upon articles in schedule c, and 
in the Amendments thereto. 

Stamp Duty. 

Proprietary Medicines and Preparations. — For and upon 
every packet, box, bottle, pot, phial, or other enclosure, con- 
taining any pills, powders, tinctures, troches, lozenges, sy- 
rups, cordials, bitters, anodynes, tonics, plasters, liniments, 
salves, ointments, pastes, drops, waters, essences, spirits, 
oils, or other medicinal preparations or compositions what- 
soever, sold, offered for sale, or removed for consumption 
and sale, by any person or persons whatever, where such, 
packet, box, etc., with its contents, does not exceed, at retail 

price or value, the sum of 25 cents $0 01 

Exceeding twenty-five, and not exceeding fifty cents 2 

Exceeding fifty, a*d not exceeding seventy-five cents 3 

Exceeding seventy-five cents and not exceeding one dollar. . . 4 
Exceeding one dollar, for every additional fifty cents, or frac- 
tional part thereof in excess of one dollar 2 

Officinal preparations, and medicines mixed or compounded 
specially for any person, according to the written recipe or 

prescription of any physician or surgeon exempt 

Perfumery and Cosmetics. — For and upon every packet, 
box, bottle, pot, phial, or other enclosure containing any es- 
sence, extract, toilet-water, cosmetic, hair-oil, pomade, hair-, 
dressing, hair-restorative, hair-dye, tooth-wash, dentifrice, 
tooth-paste, aromatic cachous, or any similar articles, by 
whatsoever name the same heretofore have been, now are, 
or may hereafter be called, known or distinguished, used 
or applied, or to be used or applied as perfumes or applica- 



50 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

tions to the hair, mouth, or skin, sold, offered for sale, or 
removed for consumption and sale, the same rates per pack- 
age, etc., as for medicines and preparations. 
Friction Matches. — For and upon every parcel or package 

of one hundred or less 1 

More than one hundred and not more than 200 2 

For every additional hundred, or fractional part thereof 1 

Wax Tapees, double the rates for friction matches. 
Cigar Lights, made in part of wood, wax, glass, paper, or 
other materials, in parcels or packages containing twenty- 
five lights or less in each parcel or package „ 1 

When in parcels or packages containing more than twenty- 
five and not more than fifty lights 2 

For every additional twenty-five lights, or fractional part of 

that number, one cent additional. 
Plating Cards. — For and upon every pack not exceeding 

fifty-two cards in number, irrespective of price or value. . . 5 

Canned Meats, etc. — For and upon every can, bottle, or 
other single package containing fish, sauces, syrups, pre- 
pared mustard, jams or jellies, contained therein, and 
packed or sealed, made, prepared, and sold or offered for 
sale, or removed for consumption in the United States, on 
and after the first day of October, 1866, when such can, bot- 
tle, or other single package, with its contents, shall not 

exceed two pounds in weight 1 

For every additional pound or fractional part thereof 1 

Cigar-lights and playing-cards, in the~ hands of manufacturers and 
dealers, should be stamped according to the rates fixed by the law 
now in force. The fact that they were manufactured prior to August 
1, 1866, and are stamped in accordance with the law in force at the time 
of manufacture, does not relieve them from payment of the increased 
rates by affixing additional stamps. 

No stamp-tax is imposed upon any uncompounded medicinal drug 
or chemical, nor upon any medicine compounded according to the 
United States or other national pharmacopoeia, or of which the full 
and proper formula is published in any of the dispensatories now or 
hitherto in common use among physicians or apothecaries, or in any 
pharmaceutical journal now issued by any incorporated college of 
pharmacy, unless sold or offered for sale or advertised under some 
other name, form, or guise, than that under which they are severally 
denominated and laid down in such pharmacopoeias, dispensatories, or 
journals. 

No stamp-tax is imposed upon medicines sold to, or for the use of, 
any person, which may be mixed and compounded for said person 
according to the written recipe or prescription of a physician or sur- 
geon. But all medicinal articles, whether simple or compounded by 
any rule, authority, or formula, published or unpublished, which are 
put up in a style or manner similar to that of patent or proprietary 
medicines in general, or advertised in newspapers or by public hand- 
bills, for popular sale and use, as having any special proprietary claim 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 51 

to merit, or to any peculiar advantage in mode of preparation, quality, 
use or effect, whether such claim bo real or pretended, are liable to 
the tax. 

Stamps appropriated to denote the duty charged upon articles named 
in Schedule <J, and in the amendments thereto, cannot be used for any 
other purpose ; nor can stamps appropriated to denote the duty upon 
instruments be used in payment of the duties upon articles enumer- 
ated in this schedule. 

When proprietary stamps from a private die are used, if they are so 
affixed to the boxes, bottles, or packages, that in opening the same, or 
in using the contents thereof, they shall and must be unavoidably and 
effectually destroyed, no cancellation is necessary ; but if they cannot 
be so affixed, they should be canceled in the . ordinary manner by 
writing or imprinting thereon the initials and date. When general 
proprietary stamps are used, they must be canceled by writing or 
imprinting thereon the date and the initials of the party using or 
affixing them. 

When proprietary medicines and preparations, perfumery, and cos- 
metics, are stamped according to their retail price or value in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the place of manufacture, no additional stamps 
are necessary upon them, whatever may be the price at which they 
are offered. 

Any person who offers or exposes for sale any of the articles named 
in Schedule C, or in any of the amendments thereto, whether they 
are imported or of foreign or domestic manufacure, is to be deemed the 
manufacturer thereof, and subject to all the duties, liabilities, and 
penalties imposed by law in regard to the sale of domestic articles 
wif&out the use of the proper stamp or stamps for denoting the tax 
paid thereon. The stamp-tax upon such articles imported or of foreign 
manufacture is in addition to the import duties ; but when such im- 
ported articles, except playing-cards, lucifer or friction matches, cigar 
lights, and wax tapers, are sold in the original or unbroken packages 
in which the bottles or enclosures were packed by the manufacturer, 
no penalty is incurred for want of the proper stamp. When the 
packages are opened, stamps should be affixed. 

The following letter in connection with this subject, will be found 
important : 

Treasury Department, Office of Int. Eev., ) 
Washington, November 20, 1869. ) 
Sir : — In reply to your letter of the 8th inst. — that when the consid- 
eration of a deed, annual rent in a lease, amount of a note, etc., upon 
which the amount of stamp-duty depends, is by the original contract 
expressed or implied to be in foreign money, or in gold — there can be 
no doubt that an estimate should be made of the value in United 
States currency as the basis of the Stamp Tax. This has long been 
the holding of this office, and the question is not considered an open 
one. Very respectfully, J. W. DOUGLASS, 

Acting Commissioner. 
To J. 0. Rawlins, Coll. First Dist., Col. 



52 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC 



RECEIPTS ©E TREASURE AlVB TREASURE EXPORTS. 

, California. . 

Nevada. North'n Mines. South'n Mines. Total. 

1858 $27,022,629 $8,185,163 $35,207,792 

1859 31,977,310 8,930,686 40,907,996 

1860 i $ 90,897 29,994,149 8,717,493 38,802,539 

1861 2,275,256 26,346,431 7,217,845 35,879,530 

1862 6,247,070 24,701,295 6,601,509 37,549,874 

1863 12,486,238 21480,533 5,610,094 39,646,865 

1864 15,014,982 18,984,727 5,347,778 39,347,487 

1865 15,466,233 21,170,104 5,108 413 41,744,750 

1866 14,727,235 20,465,520 4,106,975 39,299,730 

1867 19,135,365 18,443,262 3,013,356 40,591,980 

1868 15,509,186 20,920,075 2,888,781 39,318,042 

1869 (9 months). 8,000,000 15,383,686 2,139,671 25,523,357 

TREASURE EXPORTS. 

1867 $48,224,236 | 1868 $44,118,502 | 1869 (9 mo.) $30,486,762 



The Age op the Human Race. — There is no longer any doubt 
that man existed in Europe — probably the latest peopled part of the 
world— at a time when the great southern animals, the elephant, mam- 
moth, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, were found there, which are now 
extinct. Even where no human remains or tools have been found, the 
acute researches of Steenstrup have found traces of man by distin- 
guishing the bones which have been gnawed by animals, from those 
which show signs of having been split by man for the sake of the 
marrow, or otherwise handled by him. It is equally certain that pos- 
terior to the advent of man, the Straits of Gibraltar, of Dover and 
the Dardanelles, as well as Sicily and Africa, were still united by 
isthmuses ; the whole Mediterranean area was separated from Africa by 
a sea in the basin of Sahara ; the Baltic was a sea of ice covering the 
whole of the low levels of North Germany and Russia, and cutting off 
Finland, Sweden and Norway, into what would have been an island 
but for its j unction with Denmark. The astonishing researches of Lartet 
in France, of Fraas in Germany, and of Dupont in Belgium, have 
proved that this period was succeeded by another, in which men 
hunted in the countries of central Europe, the reindeer and other 
Arctic animals, in an Arctic climate, and surrounded by an Arctic flora. 



Molecular Development. — I conceive that both hereditary trans- 
mission and adaptation need to be analyzed into their constituent 
conditions by the further application of the doctrine of the struggle 
for existence. It is a probable hypothesis, that, what the world is to 
organisms in general, each organism is to the molecules of which it 
is composed. Multitudes of these having diverse tendencies, are com- 
peting with one another for opportunity to exist and multiply, and 
the organism, as a whole, is as much the product of the molecules, 
which are victorious, as the Fauna, or Flora, of a country is the 
product of the victorious organic beings in it. T. H. Huxley. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 53 

PRESIDENTS AXD VICE PRESIDENTS SFVCE THE FORMA- 
TION OP THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. 

George Washington, of Virginia, President from April 30th, 1789, to 
1?'»7 : John Adams, of Massachusetts, Vice President for samo period. 

John Adams, President from March 4th, 1797, to 1801 ; Thomas 
Jefferson, of Virginia, Vico President for same period. 

Thomas Jefferson, President from March 4th, 1801, to 1809; Aaron 
Burr, of New York, Vico President for first term of four years ; 
George Clinton, of New York, Vice President for the second term. 

James Madison, of Virginia, President from March 4th, 1809, to 
1817; George Clinton, Vico President first term of four years; 
El bridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, Vice President second term. 

James Monroe of Virginia, President from March 4th, 1817, to 1825 ; 
Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, Vice President for same period. 

John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, President from March 4th, 
1823, to 1829 ; Vico President, John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. 

Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, President from March 4th, 1829, to 
1837 ; Vice President first term of four years, John C. Calhoun ; Vice 
President second term, Martin Van Buren, of New York. 

Martin Van Buren, President from the 4th of March, 1837, to 1841 ; 
Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky, Vice President. 

William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, President from March 4th, 1841, 
to April 4th, 1841, (one month), when ho died, and was succeeded by 
John Tyler, of Virginia, elected Vico President at the same time, 
on the same ticket, and who filled the unexpired term. 

James K. Polk, of Tennessee, President from March 4th, 1845, to 
1849 ; Vice President, George M. Dallas, of Pennsylvania. 

Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana, President from March 4th, 1849 
to July 9th, 1850, when he died ; Millard Fillmore, of New York, 
who had been elected Vice President on the same ticket, at the same 
time, succeeded as President for the unexpired term. 

Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, President from March 4th, 
1853, to 1857 ; Wm. R. King, of Alabama, Vice President. 

James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, President from March 4th, 1857, 
to 1861 ; John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, Vice President. 

Abraham Lincoln, of Hlinois, (born in Hardin county, Ky.,) Presi- 
dent from March 4th, 1861, to April 14th, 1865, when he was 
assassinated by J. Wilkes Booth. Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, Vice 
President during first term of four years ; Andrew Johnson, elected 
Vice President for second term, succeeded to the Presidency on the 
death of Lincoln, and served out his second term. 

Ulysses S. Grant, of Wisconsin, inaugurated President, March 4th, 
1869, still serving ; Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, elected Vice Presi- 
dent at the same time. 



Old Truths for, Younq People. — The atmosphere surrounding 
the earth is supposed to have a depth of about sixty-two miles. It 
presses upon our bodies at the rate of fifteen pounds to tho square 
inch ; so that each person carries about a weight, without feeling it, 
of 35,000 pounds. 



54 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



v INSTRUCTIVE TRUTHS. 

' The exact length of the solar year is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 
49 seconds ; but, for convenience, it is reckoned 11 minutes 11 seconds 
more than this, or 365 days 6 hours— 365i days. This i day in four 
years makes one day, which every fourth year (called Bissextile or 
leap-year) is added to the shortest month, giving it 29 days. The 
numbers denoting leap-years are exactly divisible by 4 ; as 1856, 1860, 
1864 ; except years whose number can be divided without a remainder 
by 100, but not by 400. 

Owing to an error in the Julian calendar, it was decreed by the 
British Government that the day following the second day of Septem- 
ber, 1752, should be called the fourteenth day of September, or that 
11 days should be stricken from the calendar. Time, previous to this 
decree, is called Old Style (O.S.), and since, New Style (N.S.). Russia 
still reckons time by the Old Style, hence their dates are 12 days 
behind ours. 

In most business transactions 30 days are called a month, and 52 
weeks a year. 

The Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, is a period of 19 years, after 
which the changes of the moon return on the same days of the month. 

The Solar Cycle is a period of 28 years, when the days of the week 
again return to the same days of the month. 

The sun passes ove_r a degree of longitude in 4 minutes — the 360° in 
24 hours. Thus, when we travel west, or on a line with the sun, our 
watch is 4 minutes fast for every 60 geographical miles we travel. If 
we travel east, on a line with the sun, it is four minutes slow for every 
degree we travel. Hence, when it is noon at Greenwich — that is, 
when the sun is on the meridian there, if we multiply 74°, the longi- 
tude of New York west from Greenwich, by 4, and subtract the result 
from 12 o'clock M., it will give the corresponding time at New York ; 
thus, 74° X 4=296 minutes, which, divided by 60, gives four hours and 
56 minutes for the sun to travel from Greenwich to New York. Sub- 
tracting this from 12 o'clock (the Greenwich time) gives 7 o'clock and 
4 minutes A. M. as the corresponding time at New York. So also by 
reverse, when it is noon at New York it is 4 hours and 56 minutes 
past noon at Greenwich. — Waring. 



St. Maur's Estimate of Human Life. — Of every 24,000 persons 
born, 17,540 attain to 2 years, 15,162 to 3 years, 14,177 to 4 years, 
13,477 to 5 years, 12,968 to 6 years, 12,562 to 7 years, 12,255 to 8 years, 
12,015 to 9 years, 11,861 to 10 years, 11,405 to 15 years, 10,909 to 20 
years, 10,259 to 25 years, 9,544 to 30 years, 8,770 to 35 years, 7,729 to 
40 years, 7,008 to 45 years, 6,197 to 50 years, 5,375 to 55 years, 4,564 
to 60 years, 3,450 to 65 years, 2,544 to 70 years, 1,507 to 75 years, 807 
to 80 years, 291 to 85 years, 103 to 90 years, 71 to 91 years, 63 to" 92 
years, 47 to 93 years, 40 to 94 years, 33 to 95 years, 23 to 96 years, 18 
to 97 years, 16 to 98 years, 8 to 99 years, 6 or 7 to 100 years. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 55 

HTJMAN STXEXGTH. 

The force of a single man, unaided by machinery, and working to 
the host advantage, is equivalent to the raising of 70 lbs. 1 foot per 
second, for ten hours in a day. 

The maximum power of a strong man, exerted for 2| minutes, is 
equivalent to 18,000 lbs. raised one foot in a minute. 

A man of ordinary strength exerts a force of 30 lbs. for 10 hours in 
a day. with a velocity of 2£ feet in a second, which is about equal to 
4,500 lbs. raised 1 foot in a minute. 

The average weight of men is 130 lbs. each. 

A man travels, -without a load, on level ground, for 8-J- hours a day, 
at the rate of 3 7-10 miles an horn - , or 31£ miles per day. He can carry 
111 lbs. 11 miles in a day. 

A porter going short distances, and returning unloaded, carries 135 
lbs. 7 miles in a day. He can carry, in a wheel-barrow, 150 lbs. 
10 miles a day. 

An average strong man will, for a short period, exert a force with a — 
lbs. | lbs. 

Drawing-knife equal to 1U0 Pincers, compression equal to GO 

An augur, both bands " 100 A hand-plane " 50 

A screw-driver, 1 band " 81 | A hand-saw " 36 

A bench-vice, handle " 72 I A thumb-vice •' 45 

A chisel, vertical pressure " 72 A brace-bit, revolving " 16 

A windlass " 60 f 

— Wa ring. 



A New Work by Darwin. — Mr. Darwin is preparing a new work 
to be published this year, in which the main conclusion arrived at is 
his Origin of Species, and accepted by most of the younger naturalists 
of Europe, will be applied to Man. The work will consist of three 
parts: I. The Descent of Man; II. On Sexual Selection; and III. On 
Expression of the Emotions. With respect to the races or so-called 
j species of Man, Mr. Darwin has been led to the conclusion that sexual 
selection has played an important part. This principle depends, on 
the one hand, on the rivalry between males of the same species for the 
possesion of the female ; and on the other, on the choice by the females 
of the more attractive males ; combined in each case with the trans- 
mission to the offspring of the characters of the more successful 
individuals of either sex. This part of the work will be illustrated 
by copious details. 



Soils. — Pure clay consists of about 60 per cent, of silica and 40 per 
cent, of alumina and oxide of iron, usually chemically combined. The 
strongest clay-soil consists of pure clay mixed with from 5 to fifteen 
per cent, of silicious sand. Clay loam consists of pure clay mixed 
with 15 to 30 per cent, of fine sand ; loamy soil-deposits, from 30 to 
60 per cent, of sand ; sandy loam-deposits, from 60 to 90 per cent, of 
sand. Sandy soil contains no more than 10 per cent, of pure clay. 



Cure for Colic in Horses. — Burn a piece of cotton-cloth under 
his nose, and let him inhale the fumes. Mr. J. L. Chadwick 6ays he 
has tried the remedy several times without a failure. 



56 ALIA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

CALIFORNIA LABOR EXCHANGE. 
Its Benefits and Transactions. 

This institution was put into practical operation on the 27th of 
April, 1868, as a public benifice supported by voluntary contribution, 
and has been in a flourishing condition ever since. No thought was 
ever conceived, among all the various plans agitated and discussed on 
this coast for benefiting the working classes, which has in any degree 
been so general and successful in its nature. The immigrant who 
arrives among us in impoverished circumstances, perhaps from causes 
over which he had no control — an'entire stranger, without references 
or indorsement as to character — here finds friends to assist him. If 
he is industrious and proves worthy in the situation which is in nearly 
every instance provided for him, he can soon gain such a foothold as 
to direct him into broader and higher paths of prosperity. 

Not only the mechanic and laboring man, but the working female 
is also provided for by the Exchange. It charges nothing for its 
efforts to provide them with employment ; and as, in consequence, no 
mercenary consideration interposes to influence their action, the con- 
duct of its officers is wholly impartial. Such is not the case with the 
Intelligence Offices — their interest in behalf of the working classes is 
obtained only through the medium of reward, and proofs have been 
adduced to show that in many cases, while their promises have failed 
of fulfilment, their charges have been exorbitant to extortion. 

Experience has shown that the city could hardly do without such 
an institution, which should be encouraged and endowed by Legis- 
lative liberality, as the very best means of promoting the general 
weal and encouraging immigration. 

OFFICERS OF THE EXCHANGE. 

President, Ira P. Kankin ; Vice-President, C. V. Gillespie ; Treas- 
urer, Charles E. McLane ; Secretary, John White ; Trustees (active) — 
Ira P. Rankin, S. F. Butterworth, C. V. Gillespie, E. L. Sullivan, 
Charles E. McLane, I. Friedlander, J. B. Roberts ; Trustees {ex officio) — 
Gov. H. H. Haight, Frank McCoppin, James Otis, R. B. Swain, Th. J. 
Helmken, A. Weil, D. Porter, B. H. Freeman, J. R. Kelley, A. S. Hal- 
lidie, W. L. Booker, C. Meyer, John Flannagan, H. L. Lidstrom, Al- 
vinza Hayward. 

PERSONS EMPLOYED. 

From April 27th, 1868, to Nov. 20th, 1869, (men) 16,423 

From July 7th, 1868, to November 20th, 1869, (women) 5,551 

Grand Total 21,974 

Giving an average, during nineteen months, of about 1,125 persons 
per month, of both sexes, for whom employment was procured. 

EXPENSES. 

The total expenses of conducting the Exchange, since April 27th, 
1868, have been $14,414 ; average of expenses per month, $758 10 ; 
average cost of each person employed, about 66 cents — costing tho 
city about 14 cents (bond of $4,000), and the subscribers about 52 cents. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 57 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

Tho quantity and value of Domestic Produce other than Treasure 
exported during tho nine months ending September 30th, 18G8 and 
1809, respectively, wero as follows : 



Articles. Quantity. 

Abaloncs, sks 2,010 

Barlev, 100-lb sks 30,890 

Beans, sks 7,59$ 

Borax, cases 957 

Bran, Meal, etc., sks 4,353 

Bread, pkgs 7,571 

Bricks, No 74,500 

Brandy, pkgs 319 

Brooms, dozen 3,331 

Bones, pkgs 2,001 

Building Materials — 

Lumber, feet 5,455,009 

Shingles, No 2,273,000 

Laths, No 

Spars, No 318 

Pickets, No 0,000 

Posts, No 2,500 

Fish— 

Salmon, pkgs 8,095 

Various, pkgs 803 

Flour, bbls 331,932£ 

Fruit, pkgs 1,829 

Glue, pkgs 107 

Glue Stock, pkgs 17 

Hay, tons 234 

Hides, No 53,570 

Horns, No 00,105 

Leather, rolls 3,223 

Live Stock, No 12 

Lime, bbls 1,713 

Macaroni and Verm'i, bxrj 2,188 

Mustard Seed, sks 7,113 

Oats, 100-lb sks 4,881 

Onions, sks 945 

Ores — 

Gold, tons 1 

Copper, tons 4,203 

Silver, tons 40£ 

Manganese, tons 938 

Various, tons 69£ 

Potatoes, bxs and sks... 15,418 

Quicksilver, flasks 37,342 

Rosin, pkgs 25 



Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


$ 14,487 


535 


$ 5,300 


70.G2G 


140,758 


100,794 


17,505 


1,034 


4,416 


22,859 


4 


115 


5,025 


5,744 


5,939 


25,554 


7,880 


22,595 


901 


74,400 


913 


37,801 


1,510 


151,812 


8,523 


1,534 


4,209 


3,126 


807 


1,910 


123,391 


5,344,185 


118,879 


7,423 


2,203,250 


8,174 




202,500 


1,005 


9,1 10 


$ 


145 


212 


12,750 


205 


305 


0,290 


904 


05,291 


12,087 


115,080 


7,121 


128 


1,196 


2,228,421 


307,817* 


1,520,543 


3,904 


4,880 


9,498 


3,159 


349 


15,774 


1,000 


35 


1,620 


4,188 


457 


2,582 


207,993 


80,583 


270,489 


1,723 


00,527 


2,881 


104,481 


3,001 


177,953 


5,475 


43 


3,836 


3,845 


574 


1,308 


3,71G 


2,078 


3,424 


25,207 


7,085 


37,816 


11,290 


20,340 


36,042 


3,017 


1,454 


3,515 


500 


1 


200 


189,930 


1,081 


79,903 


9,100 


322* 


70,557 


14,905 


1,413 


23,269 


1,800 





252 


23,031 


17,464 


20,800 


1,143,391 


20,042 


630,624 


104 


15 


107 



58 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Seeds, pkgs 93 2,038 49 928 

Skins, Furs, etc., pks 1,486 391,225 1,955 529,702 

Spirits Turpentine, cs. . . 180 1,449 180 1,063 

Sundries, pkgs 2,598 10,992 1,250 3,523 

Tallow, pkgs 1,744 28,837 387 9,708 

Vegetables, pkgs ., 548 1,404 646 1,442 

Wheat, 100-lb sks 2,568,752 5,800,297 3,290,838 5,932,733 

Wines, pkgs 6,679 168,048 10,077 382,895 

Wool, lbs 9,522,037 1,708,508 9,790,405 1,880,401 



Totals $12,583,810 $12,265,764 

Decrease 1869 $317,046 

Public Lands and Pensions. — The late Annual Message of Presi- 
dent Grant furnishes the following information : " The Report of the 
Secretary of the Interior shows that the quantity of public lands dis- 
posed of during the year ending June 30th, 1869, was 7,666,152 acres, 
exceeding that of the preceding year by 1,010,409 acres. Of this 
amount, 2,899,544 acres were sold for cash, and 2,737,365 acres were 
secured under the Homestead Laws ; the remainder was granted to 
aid the construction of works of internal improvement, apportioned to 
the States as swamp and land-warrants and scrip. The cash receipts 
from all sources were $4,472,986, exceeding those of the preceding 
year $2,840,140. During the last fiscal year 23,196 names were added 
to the pension rolls, and 4,896 dropped therefrom, leaving at its close 
187,963. The amount paid to pensioners, including the compensation 
of disbursing agents, was $28,422,884, an increase of $441,152 on that 
of the previous year. 



Magnetism and Tkade Winds. — Dr. Mayer, of Heilbrown, con- 
siders that terrestrial magnetism is due to the trade winds. He says : 
The lowest stratum of the trade winds resumes, by friction with the 
surface of the sea, an electrical condition the opposite of that of the 
water ; the air then rises under the warmth of the sun, and the colder 
air from the pole streams in underneath, driving it towards the pole, 
where from its high state of electric tension, it produces the aurora 
borealis. Nov/ it is noticeable, that owing to the physical conforma- 
tion of the globe, the electric activity of the southern hemisphere is 
on the whole, stronger than that of the northern ; the result of which 
is that, not only between the pole and equator, but also between south 
and north j>ole, there is a constant disturbance of electrical equilibrium 
taking place, by which the direction of the magnetic needle is 
determined. 



The region of scanty rains embraces the country between about the 
100th meridian of longitude and the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. It includes the northern and southern divisions of the 
Pacific Slope, the inland basin of Utah, the table-lands of Texas, and 
the sterile region east of the Rocky Mountains. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



59 



FINANCES OF THE STATE. 

The Message of Governor Ilaight, delivered to tlio Legislature of 
California on the 9th of December, 18G9, contains the following par- 
ticulars concerning the financial condition of the State : 

The total funded debt of this State on the first day of December, 
18G7, was stated by my predecessor at $5,126,500. The present funded 
debt is $4,008,000. This is exclusive of outstanding warrants upon 
the Capital Fund. Of this amount, $960,500 of bonds are held by the 
State for School Fund. 

The total receipts from all sources, during the fiscal year ending 
June 30th, 1809, were $2,901,766 84. The total disbursements during 
the same year were $2,915,934 01. 

The reduction by the Legislature, at its last session, of the rate of 
taxation for State purposes, from $1 13 to 97 cents on each $100 of 
taxable property, afforded to the General Fund but 22} cents upon 
each $100. This rate would not have been so inadequate to furnish 
sufficient funds for the current expenditure of the State Government, 
but for the loss of about $80,000 foreign miners' license-tax, grantee! 
at the last session to the mining counties, and about $30,000 lost to 
the revenue by a judicial decision adverse to the validity of the pas- 
senger stamp-tax. Even had these two sources of revenue been 
retained, the increasing expenses of maintaining our public institu- 
tions would have rendered the rate of taxation for General Fund pur- 
poses too low. The rate recommended by the Controller is 25A- cents 
for General Fund, which is doubtless the lowest rate needed for the 
next two fiscal years. It must be recollected that the extinguishment 
of our funded debt — which will occur within five years, at the present 
rate of redemption — and the completion of the State Capitol, will 
relieve the property of the State from 57£ cents on each $100, so that 
if the State had been out of debt, and its public buildings completed, 
the rate of taxation last year would have been but 39f cents on each 
$100, instead of 97 cents, and this includes eight cents for interest on 
Central Pacific Railroad bonds and eight cents for School Fund, in 
addition to the Military Tax of 1£ cents. The rate of taxation for 
general purposes will probably not need to be increased beyond 25£ 
cents, because, with a fair and equal valuation of property, the 
increase of the assessment roll, as the State progresses in wealth and 
population, ought to furnish a large enough increase in the amount of 
money needed for the general expense of the State Government. 



Skull Measurement. — Professor Cleland has brought forward a 
new method of measuring skulls. It deals chiefly with the curve of 
the base of the skull, which is greater in adults than in infants, in 
males than in females, in civilized than in savage races. In tho same 
paper the author re-asserts a fact tolerably familiar to craniologists, 
but not so to the general public, that " there is no foundation what- 
ever for the supposition that the lower races of mankind have the 
forehead less developed than the more civilized nations." 



A 



60 



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Contrast in Color. — Eugene Dela- 
croix used to tell how lie had discov- 
ered his theory of colors, while paint- 
ing his " Marino Faliero." He required 
for the Doge and the Senators cloaks 
of cloth of gold, but his most brilliant 
yellows failed to give the effect. He 
determined to go to the Louvre, to 
study the coloring of Rubens ; and 
sent for a cab. In a few minutes it 
was at the door, and he hurried down 
stairs to get in ; but at the sight of it 
he stopped short. The cab was of a 
canary-yellow, the very tone he had 
vainly labored to produce. He saw 
that its vivid effect was entirely due to 
the violet shadings; and he did not 
visit the Louvre that day. Ho had 
discovered the secret. 

Change of Habits in Birds.— A 
curious example of a recent change of 
habits has occurred in Jamaica. Pre- 
vious to 1854, the palm swift {Tacli- 
ornis p7iamicdbea) inhabited exclusively 
the palm-trees in a few districts in the 
island. A colony then established it- 
self in two cocoa-nut palms in Spanish 
Town, and remained there till 1857, 
when one tree was blown down, and 
the other stripped of its foliage. In- 
stead of now seeking out other palm- 
trees, the swifts drove out the swal- 
lows that built in the piazza of the 
House of Assembly, and took posses- 
sion of it, building their nests on the 
tops of the end walls and at the angles 
formed by the beams and joists — a 
place which they continue to occupy. 
It is remarked that here they form 
their nest with much less elaboration 
than in the palms. Does not such a 
change in habits imply more than 
mere instinct in the birds ? 

Rainfall. — M. Becquerel states, in 
the Comptes Bendus, that in wooded 
localities the maximum rainfall occurs 
in Summer ; and, in non-wooded locali- 
ties, in Autumn. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



01 



STATISTICS OF TRANSACTIONS IX REAL ESTATE IN SAN 
FRANCISCO. 

[From December 1st, 1868, to December 1st, 1869.] 



MONTHS. 


DEEDS. MORTGAGES. 


RELEASES. 


No. 


Value. 1 No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 


December .... 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 


484 
492 
610 
914 
1,001 
1,034 
558 
302 
375 
423 
370 
342 


$1,606,759 
2,716,823 
2,905.807 
4.721,273 
4,173.005 
4 222.237 
2,262,529 
1,489,693 
1,139.416 
1,424,087 
1,631,260 
1,214,224 


221 
210 
225 
391 
328 
370 
2*93 
219 
245 
240 
179 
152 


$ 739,915 
1,185,221 

818,478 

1,857,898 

1,668,734 

1,177,593 

1,305,942 

890,271 

864,690 

901,358 

700,574 

711,913 


143 

157 
189 
237 
225 
174 
139 
153 
118 

86 
111 

77 


$312,222 
588,960 
551,998 
758,556 
892,535 
693,367 


T J 

J une 


419,795 


Julv 


475,115 
389,243 
261,134 
302,200 
255,881 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November . . . 


Total 


6,977 


$29,507,113 


3,085 


§12,888,587 


1,809 


$5,901,006 



For the above table we are indebted to Chas. D. Carter, Real Estate agent, and pub- 
lisher of Carter's "Real Estate Circular." 



Our Navy. — Secretary of the Navy Geo. M. Robeson furnishes the 
following information in his report*: The employment of vessels 
in active naval service is as follows: North Atlantic squadron, 12 ves- 
sels, 70 guns ; South Atlantic squadron, 4 vessels, 43 guns ; Pacific 
fleet, 14 vessels, 129 guns ; European squadron, vessels, 106 guns ; 
Asiatic squadron, 10 vessels, 72 guns. The Secretary recommends the 
passage of a stringent law for the protection of timber lands ; the 
adoption of measures for the increase of the personnel of the Navy, 
including the training of boys and the education of men for warrant 
and petty officers ; the registration of all seamen in the United States. 
The estimate of next year is made on the basis of 12,000 men, an 
increase of 4,000. The* actual expenditures for the year ending De- 
cember 1st were $20,812,800 ; the estimates for the fiscal year ending 
June 30th are $28,205,071. 



National Finances. — The Report of the Secretary of the Treasury 
of the United States gives the receipts for the fiscal year ending June 
30th, 1869, at $370,943,747, and the expenditures, including interest, 
for a like period, at $321,400,597. 



Patents. — During the year ending the 30th of September, 1869, 
the Patent Office issued 13,762 patents, and the receipts were $686,389, 
being $213,936 more than the expenditures. 



62 ALTA CALIFOBNIA ALMANAC. 

Internal Revenue Affairs. — The following facts relating to 
Internal Revenue affairs are taken from the Report of Commissioner 
Delano : " Receipts from all sources, exclusive of the tax on bank cir- 
culation and deposits, for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1869, were 
$60,039,344 29 ; tax on banks, $590,799,347 ; total receipts of internal 
taxes, $1,659,473,376— nearly $11,000,000 in excess of the estimate of 
Commissioner Wells last year. The receipts from customs were like- 
wise $10,000,000 larger than Mr. Wells' estimate of last year, and 
amounted to $180,040,410. Total receipts in the Treasury, from all 
sources, for the fiscal year, have been about $377,000,000 against 
$405,638,083 04 the previous year. Commissioner Delano furnishes 
two tables, showing from different sources the Internal Revenue for 
1868 and 1869, with the percentage of gain or loss. In the first half 
of the fiscal year, 1869, there was a gain of 100 per cent, in the 
receipts from distilled spirits ; and m the last half of the year a gain 
of 184 per cent. Notwithstanding the reduction of the tax from $2 
to 50 cents per gallon, the gain on spirits during the first six months 
was $95,865 22, and for the second six months $167,842 49. There 
was, however, considerable falling off in the receipts from incomes for 
the six months ending September 30th, 1869. The aggregate receipts 
are $104,377,950, against $18,543,083 for the same months in 1868. 
The increase in the receipts from the tax on spirits alone was over 
$11,000,000, and on tobacco $6,000,000; from incomes, $2,772,000. 
The increase in the receipts from the tax on spirits was somewhat due 
to the fact that whiskey in warehouse since August, 1868, had to be 
withdrawn prior to July 1st, 1869, and the tax paid. There is a steady 
gain in the receipts from the tax on tobacco. The total receipts for 
the first three months since June, 1869, show an aggregate of $46,- 
641,415, against $38,610,898 for the same months of the preceding 
year — a gain of more than 20 per cent. The aggregate receipts from 
June 30th to November 30th, 1869, were $748,167 ^04, against $603,- 
854 71 for the same months of the preceding year. The number of 
gallons of spirits in bonded warehouses, produced before July 1st, 
1868, was 24,516,634 ; the number of gallons produced from July 20th, 
1868, to June 30th, 1869, was 37,575,417— showing that from June 
30th, 1868, to June 30th, 1869, the tax was collected on 62,092,417 
gallons, which was 55,382,872 more gallons than paid tax in 1867. 
During the eleven months ending June 30th, 1869, there were pro- 
duced and tax collected on 87,575,583 gallons of spirits, with 16 663,- 
838 gallons remaining in bond." 



Composition of Milk, in 1,000 parts. — It contains water, 840 
parts ; casein, 40 ; milk-sugar, 45 ; butter or oil, 40 ; phosphate of 
lime, 17 ; phosphate of magnesia, 4 ; chloride of potassium, 9 ; com- 
mon salt, 2 ; free soda, 3 parts. 



Water boils at 212°, Fahrenheit ; alcohol, at 175 ; ether, at 93. The 
heat of the human blood is 98°. Water freezes at 32°; strong wine 
freezes at 20°; brandy freezes at 7°. Mercury freezes at 39° below zero. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMAXAC G3 

BEET 816AB. 

A factory of beet-sugar is now just put in operation, four miles from 
Sacramento. The works are improvised and rude, being intended to 
te6t the practicability of making beet-sugar in our soil and climate, 
with the smallest outlay. It is directed by W. Wadsworth, Esq., 
who spent some time working in European beet-sugar factories, to 
gain complete knowledge of the most approved processes. Thero is 
only one question to be determined. That beets make the very best 
white refined sugar, is suffioiently proved on the continent of Europe, 
where it has superseded cane-sugar. There is also no question of 
beets growing in California. Some do not feel safe in assuming that 
California beets have sugar enough to pay ; and some fear that our 
soil is generally too alkaline. It is to make sure of these points that 
the experiment is now being made at Sacramento. If its success be 
assuring, the well-known profits of beet-sugar will induce many to 
enter into the business, and soon our State will be independent of 
importers for its sugar. 

The manufacture of sugar from beets is very simple. The beets are 
shaved into ribbons by a machine-knife, and their juice is extracted 
by simple maceration in cold water. Steam-pipes do the evaporation ; 
lime removes the bitter principle ; carbonic acid gas precipitates the 
lime ; and animal charcoal effects the final purification. 

The advantages we have over Europe are very great. There, 15 
tons to the acre is the beet product ; here, 30 tons. There, three- 
quarters of the crop requires winter housing, involving expense for 
handling and hauling, and a loss of sugar by chemical transforma- 
tion ; here, we can take our beets from the ground as we want them 
for milling, there being no frost to hurt them. 



Ramie. — This new plant yields a fibre far superior to cotton. It is 
perennial. When planted it lasts for years. In Louisiana and Texas 
it is fast replacing cotton. France is growing it. There is an unlim- 
ited demand in England for the raw fibre, at £80 per ton, or 20 cents a 
pound. It is interwoven with silk and with wool, forming what are 
called stuff goods. It takes fast colors equal to silk ; and, like silk, it 
always keeps its gloss. It makes the best-wearing cloth that is made. 
The ramie gives three crops a year, averaging 1,000 lbs. to each cut- 
ting. It grows not unlike the ozier willow, in this respect — that 100 
ratoons spring from one root. It is the inner bark that supplies the 
fibre ; and, lately, a simple machine has been made to prepare it 
quickly and cheaply. It needs no rotting. Ramie is much easier to 
cultivate and to harvest than cotton, and the fibre is six feet long. It 
is now being introduced in California. An ample supply of roots has 
been imported by Henry Hughes & Co., Battery & Sacramento streets ; 
and no doubt every farmer, who has suitable soil, will be glad to vary 
his crops by planting an acre of ramie. In Louisiana, it is a sure and 
a most profitable crop. Why not in California ? We predict that it 
will soon be one of our leading productions. 



G4 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



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ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



OFFICIAL AGGBEGATE OF CALIPOKNIA PKODTCTION8, 
IOE 1868. 



Oats, acres 

Oats, bushels 

Rye, acres 

Eye, bushels* 

Corn, acres , 

Corn, bushels 

Potatoes, acres , 

Silk Cocoons, pounds. 

Butter, pounds , 

Wool, pounds 

Cheese, pounds 

Flour, barrels 

Lumber, sawed 

Beans, acres. — 



Apple. . . . 

Pear 

Nectarine 

Fig 

Orange . . 
Prune . . . 
Almond . 
Peach. . . . 



79,058 

2,567,327 

1,821 

34,476 

34,771 

986,124 

37,275 

8,203 

5,499,799 

94,666,959 

4,423,595 

1,853,408 

239,559,885 

8,258 

FEUIT 

2,180,164 

346,766 

24,728 

40,819 

30,569 



Beans, bushels 

Castor Beans, acres . . . 
Castor Beans, bushels . 
Sweet Potatoes, acres . 
Sweet Potatoes, bush. 

Onions, acres 

Onions, bushels 

Hops, acres 

Hops, pounds 

Hay, acres 

Hay, tons 

Tobacco, acres 

Tobacco, pounds 

Honey, pounds 

TREES. 

Plum 

Cherry 

Apricot 

Lemon 

Olive 

Mulberry 

Walnut 



Horses 
Mules. 

Asses . 



Bushels Corn, ground. 
Saw-Mills, steam 



32,501 
792,394 

CAT 

221,563 

25,882 
1,563 

MISCELLANEOUS. ' 

144,914 I Saw-Mills, water. . . 
238 I No. Shingles made. 



217,298 

233 

141,350 

1,145 

77,981 

2,444 

164,396 

765 
631,568 
308,884 
402,115 

138 
108,247 
485,960 

146,333 

95,034 

60,114 

5,279 

18,956 

374,123 
25,888 



Sheep 2,144,041 

Horned Cattle 646,010 



146 

67,600,000 



• 9 • 



Ant Instinct. — The French naturalist, Ernest Menault, says that 
the communities formed by ants are pure democracies. The property 
belongs equally to all, and even the babies are claimed by the State. 
A fraternity of brotherhood exists, in which love for the common 
good predominates. The females are at all times surrounded by a 
respectful court ; are carried in triumph when fatigued, and when 
unwell, nourished with the richest food. They must content them- 
selves, however, with this pre-eminence of social distinction, as they 
are positively denied any participation in the politics of the State. 
While living they are honored as the mothers of the community, and 
at death, Huber declares, buried with an extraordinary display of 
ant magnificence. All governing power rests with the masses. In 
this respect the ants differ widely from the bees, who maintain the 
forms of royalty in the persons of a King and Queen. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 67 

SILK. 

Last year was disastrous to silk making in California. Most of our 
worms died, and our cocoons are defective. We have been misguided 
by the only Manual of Instructions we have followed. So far from our 
climate exempting us from casualties that befal the silk-worm else- 
where, it has peculiarities that rcquiro extra care. The daily alterna- 
tions of temperature, from high noon till midnight, must be provided 
for by concrete buildings and double roofs, with ventilation and means 
of warming. In the great silk countries elsewhere, silk-worms are 
not reared in factories after our fashion ; they are mostly fed in small 
numbers among the scattered peasantry, being carefully tended by the 
women and children of the family. Besides, our silk-culture has suf- 
fered from causes that will not occur again. The chief aim has been 
to multiply trees and cocoons, to secure the State bounty — which was 
itself a tempting price and a profit on the cost of production. Our 
trees are all too young for wholesome feeding ; the system of cutting 
them down to the ground, to make slips for speculative planting, has 
deprived us of the early leafage necessary to feed the worms in the 
hatching season ; and our mulberry trees are not the best for silk, 
because we have preferred the commoner kind on account of its easier 
multiplication, and its answering as well for the State bounty, and for 
speculative sales of cuttings. 

Wo want no more mvlticaulis trees ; we want grafting, with better 
varieties. Then our trees want growth and maturity. We need not 
plant more ; there are enough. For years to come their annual en- 
largement will suffice for our wants. They should be set out for per- 
manent plantation, at least 25 feet apart every way. They will soon 
fill up the spaces. 

We will be successful, after a time, in making silk ; but we have to 
unlearn a great deal, and begin on a new system of cautious practice. 
We have done almost nothing in reeling or in weaving silk. If we 
succeed in raising good cocoons in 1870, we shall probably have con- 
siderable reeled silk to export, besides the eggs, for which there is a 
demand in Europe. 

There are probably 25 millions of mulberry trees in the State, 
mostly in hedges and nurseries ; very few are set out in plantation. 



Sorghum Cane. — Mr. Purdy has introduced the culture of this 
plant near Gilroy. From 50 acres, he has produced in his factory 
15,000 gallons of syrup, which surpasses in richness the best golden 
syrup of our sugar refineries. Several samples of his first make, in 
1868, have been kept a year to test it — which prove its freedom from 
acid fermentation. It is free from the peculiar flavor which sorghum 
syrup used to have in its first experiments. It finds a ready market 
here at 75 cents a gallon, for home use. Let every family that eats 
buck-wheat cakes get some of Purdy's California syrup. 

Wine and spirits are softened and ripened by !$■ per cent, of pure 
glycerine. 



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70 ALTA GALIFOBNIA ALMANAC. 

"WHAT CALIFORNIA HAS ACCOMPLISHED. 

For a community never exceeding from 400,000 to 500,000, all told, 
scattered over an area large enough to support 30,000,000, and begin- 
ning twenty years ago with but a handful of Caucasians, California 
has accomplished a great deal. If its gold product has fallen from 
$65,000,000 per annum to $25,000,000, its agricultural products have 
increased to an amount equal to half the largest gold yield ever 
known. The wheat-crop alone, for 1867, was worth nearly as much as 
the gold, and the surplus of this staple freighted two hundred and 
twenty-three ships, and reached a value of $13,000,000 ; while the 
total exports of home products, including about fifty different articles 
for which the State was formerly dependent on other lands, was about 
$17,000,000. 

The vintage of 1867 exceeded 3,500,000 gallons of wine ajid 400,000 
gallons of brandy, the number of vines now growing in the State 
being about 25,000,000 The wool-clip was 9,500,000 pounds, showing 
a gain of more than thirty per cent, over 1866. Silk, tobacco, hops, 
flax, and cotton, may now be ranked among the minor products that 
promise to be hereafter sources of profit. A silk factory and sugar- 
beet factory are two of the new industries being established. 

The manufactures of the State are already estimated at $30,000,000 
per annum. The best mining machinery in the Union is made here. 
The assessed value of real and personal property increased in 1867 
about $21,000,000, running up the total taxable values of the State to 
some $221,000,000, and showing a gain of twenty per cent, in two 
years — the most prosperous years ever experienced in this State. — 
Cronise. 



Artificial Stone. — After over a year's assiduous efforts to make 
Ransom's patent stone, without success, the factory on Turk street has 
been closed. There are great obstacles to get pure sand, and to make 
silicate of soda, to answer the conditions of the patent; also, the 
chloride of calcium is imperfect in its removal of the soda from the 
stone, and in the chemical union its calcium should make with the 
silex that forms the great bulk of the stone. Without this there is 
no lasting bond to hold it together. ~A person has been sent to 
London, to learn how Ransom achieves so marked success in making 
artificial stone there, 



Title Houses are being constructed on our lowlands, where tule is 
convenient. The roof is a thatch, that turns water and resists the 
introduction of sun's heat. The whole house secures great evenness 
of temperature, and it seems well adapted to silk-worms. It is very 
cheap, is quickly constructed, and needs very slight framework to sup- 
port the covering, 



Bamboo will be planted in our Stato this year. When we consider 
the multifarious uses it subserves in China, we may expect that Cali- 
fornia ingenuity will prove it to be a valuable addition to our resources. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



FALL, OF KAIV TS SAX FRAXCISCO. 

The following table of the yearly fall of rain in San Francisco, from 1849 to 1869. is fur- 
nished to us by Mr. Thomas Tennent, Nautical Instrument Maker, of this nty, from 
records kept by him duringthat period. The table is arranged in seasons, from July 
1st of each year to the same date of the succeeding year. 



Seasons. 


Inches. 


Seasons. 


Inches. 


Seasons. 


Inches. 


1849-50 


33.10 


1856-57 


19.88 


1863-64 


10.08 


1850-51 


7.18 


1857-58 


21.81 


1864-65 


24.73 


1851-52 


19.25 


1858-59 


22.22 


1865-66 


22.93 


1852-53 


33.20 


1859-60 


22.27 


1866-67 


34.92 


1853-54 


23.87 


1860-61 


19.72 


1867-68 


38.83 


1S54-55 


23.68 


1861-62 


49.27 


1868-69 


21.35 


1855-56 


21.66 


1862-63 


13.62 







Tiie Floral Isles. — The submerged isles in the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin Rivers, four hours from San Francisco, are being 
reclaimed by embankments. Two are now redeemed from the flood- 
tides, viz.: Sherman and Twitchel Islands — 14,000 and 3,600 acres, 
respectively. There are not less than half-a-million of acres of sub- 
merged islands, all composed alike of rich river-mud, so deep as to be 
of inexhaustible fertility, and of so humid a sub- soil as to be proof 
against drought, however severe and prolonged. Here rice and sugar- 
cane, and madder and ramie, will be grown, and timothy hay to sup- 
plant the oat and barley straw that are at present so poor a substitute 
for grass hay. Here bees have pasture alway, and flowers bloom ever- 
more. To these islands we may look for vegetable supplies, cheaper 
and better than ever, and more varied and abundant ; there being 
water carriage to our city. . . .Many sugar factories will be located on 
" The Floral Isles"; for beets make an enormous crop, and both 
sorghum and Louisiana cane are expected to thrive there. Two crops 
of grain, and three full cuttings of timothy hay, are realized in a sea- 
son, and pasture is ever green there. We may look for pure milk and 
rich cream from these perennial pastures. Their reclamation will 
make a vast addition to our arable land, and when years of drought 
spread desolation o'er the land, the Floral Isles, witli" their perpetual 
moisture, will prove our salvation. 



The Tea-Plant. — Tea-plants are being introduced here. They 
require high, rolling land, and some winter frost, to make good bever- 
age. Our foothills are exactly suited to the tea-plant. Tea seed is of 
very uncertain growth after its voyage from China. It is best to 
import plants of one year's growth.* The plant is very hardy, and a 
sufficient number has been already put out, to prove that they will 
thrive here. To be independent of the stuff" we get for average tea 
from China, would be a great gain to health and comfort. Let us 
hope that tea-culture may be as rapid and as successful as it has been 
on the foothills of the snowy Himalayas of North-western India, 
where it has completely superseded all importations from China. 



72 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC, 



DISTANCES BETWEEN PRINCIPAL. PACIFIC PORTS* 

Furnished by the National Bureau of Statistics. 

Miles.* Mllea.t 

From Honolulu, H. I., to New York, via Cape Horn. 14,376 

From Honolulu, H. I., to New York, via Panama 4,320 6,587 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Panama, N. G 4,560 4,580 

From Honolulu, H, I., to Callao, Peru 5,172 5,364 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Valparaiso, Chile" 5,928 5,990 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Acapulco, Mexico 3,282 3,282 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Mazatlan, Mexico 2,856 2,856 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Guaymas, Mexico 2,580 8,012 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Cape San Lucas, Mexico 2,658 2,658 

From Honolulu, H. I., to San Diego, California 2,262 2,262 

From Honolulu, H. I., to San Francisco, California 2,080 2,080 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Portland, Oregon , 2,256 2,330 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Victoria, V. 1 2,310 2,830 

From Honolulu, H. I., to New Westminster, B. C 2,358 2,410 

From Honolulu, H. I., to New Archangel, Sitka Islands. 2,370 2,370 

From Honolulu, H. L, to Yokohama, Japan 3,354 3,475 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Canton, China 4,848 5,017 

From Honolulu, H. L, to Sydney, N. S. W 4,405 4,820 

From Honolulu, H. I., to Melbourne, Victoria 4,810 5,280 

From San Francisco to Yokohama, via Honolulu 4,460 5,580 

From San Francisco to Shanghai, via Honolulu 5,328 6,740 

From San Francisco to Hongkong, via Honolulu 6,012 7,000 

From San Francisco to Sydney, via Honolulu 6,456 6,700 

From San Francisco to Melbourne, via Honolulu 6,860 7,160 

From San Francisco to Calcutta, via Honolulu 6,810 11,380 

From San Francisco to New York, via Cape Horn 14,000 

From San Francisco to New York, via Panama 5,287 

From San Francisco to Panama, N. G 2,886 3,260 

From San Francisco to Callao, Peru 3,912 4,010 

From San Francisco to Valparaiso, Child 5,124 5,300 

From San Francisco to Acapulco, Mexico 1,740 1,850 

From San Francisco to Manzanillo, Mexico 1,472 1,550 

From San Francisco to Mazatlan, Mexico 1,200 1,390 

From San Francisco to Guaymas, Mexico 864 1,530 

From San Francisco to Cape San Lucas, Mexico 1,104 1,145 

From San Francisco to San Diego, California 400 450 

From San Francisco to Portland, Oregon 463 670 

From San Francisco to Victoria, V. 1 654 746 

From San Francisco to New Westminster, B. C 690 815 

From San Francisco to New Archangel, Sitka Islands.. . 1,284 1,290 

From San Francisco to Kanagawa, Japan 5,000 

From Aspinwall, N. G., to Milford Haven, England 4,390 4,500 

From Panama, N. G., to Tahiti, Society Islands 4,430 4,540 

From Panama, N. G., to Sydney, N. S. W. 7,638 7,690 

From Panama, N. G., to Canton, China 8,760 9,577 

* Shortest Distances in Nautical Miles, f Shortest Sailing Route in Nautical Miles. 



ALTA CALIFOnxiA ALMANAC. 73 

RESULT OF SAN" FRANCISCO CITY AND COIXTY ELECTION, 
IIEEJD SEPTEMBER let, I860. 

Total Vote. Majorities. 
SENATOR^ 

Robert J. Betge (D.) 12,239 2,904 

Thoe. N. Waud 12,237 2,902 

M. M. Estco (R.) 9,335 

James Pollock (R.) 9,085 

ASSEMBLYMEN. 

E. A. Rockwell (D.) '12,192 2,907 

Joseph Naphtalv (D.) 12,385 3,100 

John C. Griswoki (D.) 12,252 2,967 

Thomas P. Ryan (D.) 12,155 2,870 

Michael Hayes (D.) 12,126 2,841 

Oeo. R. B. Hayes (D.) 12,202 907 

Geo. II. Rogers (D.) 12,199 2,914 

T. J. Moynihan (D.) 11,840 2,563 

J. L. Romer (D.) 12,315 3,030 

Charles McMillan (D.) 12,014 2,929 

II. W. Fortune (D.) 12,009 2,724 

Wm. O'Connell (D.) 12,093 2,808 

Chas. L. Wiggin (R.) 9,239 

W. H. Culver (R.) 9,091 

S. L. Cutter, Jr., (R.) 9,242 

Thos. O'Brien (R.) 9,043 

Wallace T. James (R.) 9,23? 

Henry Webb (R.) 9,285 

John L. Love (R.) 9,002 

John Mason (R.) 9,266 

II. W. Byington (R.) 9,192 

John C. Broderick (R.) 9,197 

W. L. Ustick (R.) 9,028 

W. D. Delaney (R.) 9,103 

MAYOR. 

Frank McCoppin (D.) 10,682 

Thos. H. Selby (I.) 10,803 110 

SHERIFF. 

P. J. White (D.) 11,298 1,136 

John A. McGlynn (I.) t . . .. 10,163 

COUNTY CLERK. 

R. H. Sinton (D.) 10,666 

JohnHanna (I.) 10,876 210 

COUNTY RECORDER. 

W.L.Higgina (D.) i 11,588 1,660 

E. W. Leonard (I.) 9,928 

TREASURER. 

Otto Kloppenburg (D.) 11,577 1,755 

F. S. Wensinger (I.) 9,822 



74 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



A8SERSOTi£ 

Levi Roeener (D.) '. U,316 1,199 

George Congden (I.) 10,117 

DISTRICT ATTORNEY. 

H. H. Byrne (D.) 12,560 3,762 

Wm. H. Rhodes (I.) 8,798 

COUNTY SURVEYOR. 

Wm. P. Humphreys (D.) 11,906 2,285 

A. W. Von Schmidt (I.) 9,621 

HARBOR COMMISSIONER. 

John J. Marks (D.) 10,898 325 

James Laidley (I.) 10,573 

HARBOR MASTER. 

Martin Bulger (D.) 11,233 1,061 

S. P. Wells (I.) 10;175 

CORONER. 

Jonathan Letterman (D.) 11,596 1,727 

Dr. P. W. Randle (I.) 9,869 

FIRE COMMISSIONER. 

James Farrell (D.) 10,467 

Benj. H. Freeman (I.) 11,054 587 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE*. 

F. A. Sawyer (D.) 11,420 1,077 

T. W. Taliaferro (D.) 11,236 893 

J. C. Pennie (D.) 11,424 1,081 

Chas. Corkery (D.) 11,082 739 

Michael Cooney (D.) 10,523 180 

John F. Finn (I.) 10,341 

Frank O'Conner (I.) 10,337 

Wm. Smith (I.) 10,343 

Henry Cook (I.) 10,297 

A. C. Morse (I.) 10,232 



The Future of California. — To partially realize the^capacity of 
California, we have but to compare it with other States. With a popu- 
lation as dense as that of the State of New York, we would have 
within our borders 13,500,000 inhabitants ; with the density of Mas- 
sachusetts, we would have 25,000,000 ; with the density of France, 
33,000,000 ; with that of Great Britain, 40,500,000 ; and had we as 
many people to the square mile as Belgium, our population would 
reach the enormous aggregate of 74,000,000. These figures tell us, in 
language free from exaggeration, that we are in the very babyhood of 
existence, and that our residence of twenty years in California has 
been pioneer life in the true sense, cutting away the undergrowth, 
smoothing the rough places, and preparing the wav for the coming 
car of the grandest civilization the world has ever looked upon. — 
K D. W/ieeler. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC 




75 


STATE JUDICIAL ELECTION-OFFICIAL VOTE BY COUNTIES. 


The following is tlio official return of each, county 


in this 


State, to 


Secretary of State Nichols, 


of the vote cast for Supreme Judges on 


the 20th of October last : 










Counties. 


Wallace. 


Sawyer- 

944 


Crockett 


Pratt. 


Alameda 


584 


94} 


604 


Alpine 


56 


103 


71 


88 


Amador 


852 


625 


854 


608 


Butto 


950 


781 
579 
189 
527 


943 

776 
584 
325 


782 

• 562 

188 

510 


Calaveras 


756 


Colusa 


583 


Contra Costa 


326 


Del Norte 


173 


132 


174 


131 


El Dorado 


1,101 


805 


1,108 


798 


Fresno , 


210 


23 


213 


22 


Humboldt 


415 


656 


422 


651 


Inyo 


74 


55 


75 


52 


Kern 


186 


44 


194 


34 


Klamath 


136 


69 


141 


66 




314 


91 

118 


370 
109 


44 
115 


Lassen 


105 




1,292 


430 


1,320 


406 


Marin 


326 


327 


364 


289 




370 


242 
329 


386 
692 


225 
323 


Mendocino 


691 




214 


55 


215 


53 


Mono 


79 


107 


82 


104 




610 


443 


636 


414 


Napa 


423 


379 


448 


350 




1,774 


1,472 


1,793 


1,464 


Placer 


1,030 


1,174 


1,061 


1,145 


Plumas 




418 
1,847 


421 
1,928 


405 
1,830 


Sacramento 


1,910 




273 


130 


282 


119 


San Diego 


2G9 


147 


274 


140 




6,872 


6,128 


8,093 


4,912 


San Joaquin 


1,387 


1,194 


1,417 


1,170 




403 


370 


414 


362 


San Mateo 


250 


315 


254 


327 




630 


437 


622 


444 


ranta Clara 


1,032 


1,460 


1,717 


1,416 


Santa Cruz .-.,,..■....*.< 


370 


601 

485 


434 
454 


543 

482 


Shasta 


453 


Sierra . . 


587 


745 

533 

1,179 


614 

875 
869 


718 

528 

1,178 


Siskiyou 


869 


Solano 


852 


Sonoma 


1,528 


935 


1,541 


915 


Stanislaus 


446 


193 


450 


190 


Sutter \ 


471 


375 


483 


855 



76 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Tehama 293 20<^ 294 210 

Trinity 365 333 373 333 

Tulare 885 165 405 142 

Tuolumne 665 635 697 608 

Yolo 901 507 904 507 

Yuba... 839 899 885 885 

Totals... 36,692 30,936 38,997 28,705 

>» i 

Palimpsests. — The scarcity of writing materials led, in the middle 
ages, to an attempt at economising them, which was attended with 
very mischievous results to literature. Manuscripts containing the 
most valuable productions of aDtiquity were effaced, that the parch- 
ment on which they were written might be used for some worthless 
legend, or some fanciful disquisition equally valueless. Various efforts 
have been made to revive the more ancient writing, in the hope of 
recovering some lost work of classic antiquity. A very effective 
means of attaining this object has lately been discovered by accident. 
An old engraving having been photographed, a line which had been 
written with a pen was perceived in the copy, though nothing of the 
kind had been observed in the engraving. An examination, however, 
showed that it had been there, but was erased, under the supposition, 
very probably, that it lessened the value of the engraving. This dis- 
covery of another curious result cf photography immediately sug- 
gested its use as a means of reviving the effaced writing of palimp- 
sests, and it is even hoped that what is thus recovered may be trans- 
ferred directly to steel or stone. 

The Motor Clock op Greenwich Observatory. — The Astro- 
nomer Royal says of this instrument : " It maintains various clocks in 
sympathy with itself, it regulates clocks in London, sends signals 
through Britain, drops the Deal time-ball, fires guns at Newcastle and 
Shields (I think, also at Sunderland), and puts communications in such 
a state that we can receive automatic reports from the signal-places as 
we may desire. I may, however, specially mention that daily signals 
are now sent to some places in Ireland ; and that, during the expedi- 
tion of the Great Eastern for laying down the Atlantic cable, time- 
signals were sent on board twice a day, to enable her constantly to 
determine hex longitude." 

State Prison Deficiencies. — Governor Haight says there has 
been a deficiency in the earnings to meet the expenditures of the 
State Prison of California, during the last four years, of from $70,000 
to $80,000 per annum. In many of the States, convict labor yields a 
large profit over the prison expenses. 

City Expenses. — The true expenditure for conducting the munici- 
pal government of San Francisco, for the fiscal year 1868-9, is stated 
by the City and County Auditor to be $2,073,092.24. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 77 

CALESTOGA SPRINGS, 

When wealth and refinement accompany civilization, enterprise is 
taxed to open the avenues for increased rational enjoyment. The 
laws of hygiene have made it of record that when the body becomes 
enervated by disease, or the mind over-burdened with labor, each 
demands to bo recreated. It is equally an attested fact, that in the 
absence of organic affections, the exhausted energies may be restored 
simply by a change of scene and climate. Hence it is that the 
" watering-place " finds its numerous votaries, where the medicated 
bath, the inviting radiance and perfumes of flowers, the shady prome- 
nades, pleasant drives, expansive vineyards, grass-covered slopes, and 
bright foliage of contiguous orchards, form a picture whose contem- 
plation inspires emotions of the most pleasant and rejuvenating char- 
acter. Calistoga is eminently such a place. Its inducements to the 
pleasure-seeker and invalid are luxurious in the comforts of art and 
the lovely surroundings of Nature. Its fifty or sixty flowing springs, 
of all gradations of temperature ; its excellent hotels, and beautiful 
villa of alluring cottages; its smooth and romantic roads, for the 
indulgence of a drive or horse-back ride ; its neighboring trout- 
streams ; its abundance of game, within a half-hour's walk ; its facility 
of access from all parts of the State ; and, above all, the reasonableness 
of its charges, must commend it to the public, and make it always a 
popular place of resort. 

It is to the genius and liberality of Mr. Samuel Brannan that the 
people of California are indebted for this most romantic and lovely 
retiring spot. Its comforts are all that wealth or fastidiousness could 
ask. Its scenery is a blending of peaceful upland and forest land- 
scape, margined in the back-ground by mountains easy of approach, 
with countless rivulets intervening, and the silver line of a river 
meandering through the valley which it overlooks. 

Calistoga is within three hours and a half ride by steamer and rail 
of San Francisco, tho journey being one of ease and pleasure. At the 
present time it is tho terminus of the Napa Valley Railroad, and is 
located in the centre of a rich grain-growing and wine-producing 
region. In point of natural beauty, it would hardly be an exaggera- 
tion to compare it to "Araby, the Blest." Already it has grown to be 
historic ; but in a few years more the tourist who visit3 California will 
consider his explorations incomplete until he has housed himself 
among its comforts, plunged into its delicious baths, fished in its 
adjoining brooklets, threaded the cooling vistas of its leafy forests, 
clambered over its upland slopes, and followed the timid coveys to 
their retreat amid the underbrush and chapparal of the gorges. 

4«, 

Peat is very plenty in California. There is a corresponding differ- 
ence, in quality and texture, between both the coals and tho peats of 
Europe, and those of our State. Ours are less concentrated, and less 
| valuable for fuel ; but there is a means for reducing this disadvantage. 
Wo shall soon tire of sending half our coal up the smoke-stack un- 
burned, and peat may be cheaply condensed by machinery. 



78 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

WOOLM SIILLS AHD WOODEN FABRICS* 

The people of California have come to regard the woolen interest 
with special favor. The fabrics thus far constructed have been pro- 
nounced equal, in kind, to those of Europe or Australia. Our blankets 
have everywhere commanded admiration, and are forcing themselves 
into competition with the imported article in several of the populous 
Atlantic cities. Mr. Donald McLellan recently received an order for 
several of the blankets manufactured at the Mission Mills (of which 
he is Manager), from Samuel Bowles, Esq., accompanied by an expres- 
sion of assurance that — in St. Louis at least, where he had. submitted 
them to critical inspection — they had passed triumphantly through 
the ordeal, having not only been extolled as "superb," but as excelling, 
in fineness of texture and compactness of fibre, the famous Pittsfield 
robes. 

This is encouraging, in view of the obstacles our woolen jnanufac- 
turers are compelled to encounter. They have felt, in a severe degree, 
the depression which has for some time past existed in commercial 
and mechanical circles. With every effort at economy, the prices of 
labor and material are high. These drawbacks, coupled with the 
fluctuations in the prices of gold, and the unusually large influx of 
importations, have compelled all our Woolen Mills to contract their 
business. Better times, however, are in prospect. 

California offers so many advantages (aside from the causes com- 
plained of) for manufacturing, that this feature of her industry can 
hardly be permanently checked. She can already boast five Woolen 
Mills ; but these are inadequate to work up more than a fractional 
part of her wool. Other mills are in contemplation, and a determina- 
tion has been expressed by the leading adventurers in this kind of 
enterprise, to command a monopoly of the market in woolen fabrics 
on this coast, or impoverish themselves in the attempt. To carry out 
their design, so full of promise to the interests of the wool-producers 
and operative classes, they will need the fostering support of our citi- 
zens, and, we hope, may receive it. 

In proof of this plucky design, we may state that the incorporation 
known as the " Mission and Pacific Mills Consolidation," are already 
engaged getting out rock for the foundations, at South San Francisco, 
of the largest Woolen Mill ever erected on this coast. Its dimen- 
sions are to be : main building, 420x60 feet, three stories high, with a 
working attic ; there will be two wings, 180x60 feet each ; together 
with dye-houses, tailoring-shops, store-house, wool-assorting building, 
etc., etc. When completed and in operation, the mill will givo em- 
ployment to thirteen hundred men and women, whose residences are 
expected to be in the near vicinity, and who will thus form a nucleus 
of three or four thousand souls for a permanent village. 

The confidence evinced by the projectors of this enterprise, in the 
future of San Francisco, will have its effect in stimulating other and 
different manufactories, until we shall have become distinguished and 
prosperous in that branch of trade to an extent commensurate with 
our natural and industrial advantages, offered so abundantly through- 
out the State. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 79 

THE GREAT OVERLAND KAILROAI). 

There is but one road, in fact, yet two roads in interest. The sub- 
sidy in lands granted by the Government of the United States to the 
roads, as entirety, was every alternate section of land for 20 miles on 
each side of the road, or 20 sections, equaling 12,800 acres for each 
mile of the road. The road, as completed, is 1,774 miles long. This 
gives the Company 22,707,200 acres, divided as follows : Union Pacific, 
13,875,200 ; Central Pacific, 8,832,000. Government, in addition, agreed 
to issuo its thirty-year six-per-cent. bonds in aid of the work, gradu- 
ated as follows : For the plains portion of the road, $10,000 per mile ; 
for the next most difficult portion, $32,000 per mile ; for the moun- 
tainous portion, $48,000 per mile. 

The Union Pacific Railroad Company built 526 miles, for which 
they received $16,000 per mile ; 408 mi'les at $32,000 per mile ; 150 
miles at $48,000 per mile— making a total of $28,450,000. 

The Central Pacific Railroad Company built 12 miles at $16,000 per 
mile ; 522 miles at $32,000 per mile; 156 miles at $48,000 per mile- 
making a total of $24,386,000. 

The total subsidies for both roads amount to $52,840,000. Govern- 
ment also guaranteed tho interest on the Companies' first mortgage- 
bonds to an equal amount. 

Trained Fleas. — If that " pestiferous " insect known as a flea, were 
judged simply by the annoyance and suffering it occasions, there are 
certain localities in California, among which the sand-hills of San Fran- 
cisco are chief, where the residents would consign it to a perdition so 
profound, that there never could be any hope even of its ghostly resur- 
rection. Tho flea, however, is intelligent and sentient, as the follow- 
ing anecdote, related by Baron Walckenaer will show : and viewed in 
this light, it becomes suddenly invested with characteristics of interest, 
which even those who despise it, cannot fail to admire. 

The Baron says, alluding to certain marvellous things performed by 
a trained band of the " varmints :" " I saw them with my entomologist 
eyes, through several magnifying glasses. Four fleas were doing 
the exercise, standing on their hind feet, and armed with a pike, which 
was a little spar of very fine wood. Two fleas were attached to a 
gold traveling carriage of four wheels, with a postillion. A third flea 
was seated on the coachman's box, a little piece of wood representing 
the whip. Two fleas drew a cannon. All these clever drillings, and 
others, were executed on polished glass. The flea-horses wero 
attached to a gold chain by their hind thighs. The owners told me 
that they never took off this chain. The fleas lived thus for two years 
and a half. They were fed by putting them on a man's arm, from 
which they sucked the blood. When they would not draw the 
cannon or the traveling carriage, their trainer took a lighted piece of 
wood,, which he held above them. They then moved and recom- 
menced their exercises." 



MORSE TELEGRAPH, 



LETTERS. 
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PUNCTUATION MARKS. 

Period. Semicolon. Comma. 


Interrogation . 


Apostrophe. 


Emphasis. 



Quotation. Bracket. 

i m •»» a bbh aaaai a a ■ bbbbb 

Paragraph . 3 



SIGNALS AND ABBREVIATIONS, 



Walt a moment. 
Through business. 
Where shall I go ahead? 
Have you anything for me 7 
Office Message. 
Kepeat this message back. 
Give circuit for testing lines. 
What time is it? 
Do yon understand ? 
What la the matter? 
Do you get my writing ? 
Answer paid here. 
Make Dots. 



44. Answer by Telegraphs, 

64. Ho w i s the weather ? 

73. My best respects. ' 

17. Are you ready? 

82. Received and Delivered. 
134. Who Is writing? 
OK. All right. 
GA. Go ahead. 
AHB. Another, 
KM. N« more. 
G>I. Good morning. 
8IG. Signature. 
FM. Prom, 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 81 



CALIFORNIA BORAX. 

The source of supply of this mineral is a large and shallow basin, 
called Borax Lake, in Napa County. It is separated from Clear Lake 
by a range of hills belonging to the cretaceous period, and has, under 
ordinary circumstances, a length of about a mile, with an average 
width of half a mile ; but its extent varies somewhat at different peri- 
ods of the year, since its waters cover a larger area in Spring than 
during the Autumnal months. No stream of any kind flows into this 
basin, which derives its supply of water from the drainage of the sur- 
rounding hills, as well as in all probability from subterranean springs 
discharging themselves into the bottom of the lake. In ordinary sea- 
sons the depth thus varies from five feet in the month of April, to two 
feet at the end of October. 

The borax occurs in the form of crystals of various dimensions, im- 
bedded in the mud of the bottom, which is found to be the most pro- 
ductive to a depth of about 3-£ feet, although a bore-hole, which was 
sunk near the centre to the depth of GO feet, is said to have afforded a 
proportion of* that salt throughout its whole extent. 

The crystals thus occurring are most abundant near the centre of 
the lake, and extend over an area equivalent to about one-third of its 
surface ; but they are also met with, in small quantities, in the muddy 
deposit of the other portions of the basin — some of them being, in the 
richest part before alluded to, over a pound in weight. The largest 
crystals are generally inclosed in a stiff blue clay, at a depth of be- 
tween three and four feet, and a short distance above them is a nearly 
pure stratum of smaller ones, some two and one-half or three inches in 
thickness, in addition to which crystals of various sizes are dissemina- 
ted throughout the muddy deposit of wliich the bottom consists. 

Besides the borax thus existing in a crystallized form, tho mud is 
itself highly charged with that salt, and, according to analysis of Pro- 
fessor Oxland, when dried affords in the portions of the lake now 
worked (including the inclosed crystals) 17.73 per cent. 

Another analysis of an average sample, by Mr. Moore, of San Fran- 
cisco, yielded 18.83 per cent, of crystallized borax. In addition to this, 
the deposit at the bottom of the other portions of the basin, although 
less productive, still contains a large amount of borax. It has been 
further ascertained, by making pits on the lake shore, that clay, con- 
taining a certain amount of borax, exists in the low ground at a con- 
siderable distanee from the water's edge. 



Curious Cement. — The long bridge, of twenty-four arches, across 
the Torridge River, near its junction with the Taw, at tho town of 
Bideford, in Devonshire, is kept together by. the common mussel. At 
this bridge the tide runs so rapidly that the piers cannot be kept in 
repair with mortar. The Corporation, therefore, employ boats to 
bring mussels to it, and the interstices of the work are kept filled 
with them. The bridge is kept from being driven away by tho tide 
entirely by the strong threads of the byssus, which these mussels fix 
to the stones. 



82 ALTA CALIFOBNIA ALMANAC. 

EABLT HISTORY OF CALIFORMA. 

The Traditional memories of early life in California are less fre- 
quently recounted, and grow dimmer with the lapse of years. Every 
pioneer who drops into his grave carries with him a store of unwritten 
incidents, which, if preserved, might be found instructive to the gen- 
erations yet to come, in forming a correct estimate of the trials, dan- 
gers, and triumphs which the earlier immigrants encountered. The 
miner's life involved unceasing toil, sustained only by a high expecta- 
tion ; and it is in his history, more particularly, that those who are to 
come after us will find most matter to surprise, amuse, and entertain 
them. 

The following sketch, copied from a sustained oration of Mr. John 
S. Hittell, will be found interesting for present perusal and future 
reference : 

" In an epoch that belongs not to history or tradition, but to geol- 
ogy, while the Sacramento Basin was a great lake, while the higher 
parts of the Sierra Nevada were covered with glaciers, and, still ear- 
lier, while numerous volcanoes were pouring out their lavas to form 
the northern portion of the Sierra, men lived upon its slopes, as their 
bones, their mortars, their pestles, their spear-heads and arrow-heads, 
then deposited in deep beds of gravel, and of late brought to light, 
bear witness. We have no conclusive evidence that the Diggers found 
here by the first Spanish explorers more than three hundred years ago 
had been preceded by a different race. The tradition that the Aztecs 
came from this coast, and the theory that the North American Indians 
are descendants of Asiatics, are not sustained by any trustworthy proof. 
The aborigines were not able to adapt themselves to high civilization, 
and they are not represented among us to-day. They have left no 
art, no custom, no monument, (except a few mounds, the accumulation 
of shells, bones, coal, and ashes, around their rancherias) no original 
thought, no recollection of a noble deed, no tongue, only a few proper 
names, (such as Sonoma, Napa, Petaluma, Suisun, Tuolumne, Mokel- 
umne, etc.) to testify to their existence. 

The second era, that of Spanish dominion and ascetic ideas, lasted 
fifty-three years, beginning on the 11th of April, 1769, when the brig 
San Antonio arrived at San Diego with the first party of white men 
who came to make a permanent settlement in what was then Upper 
or New California, and is now simply California. This settlement was 
under the control of Franciscan friars, whose purpose was to convert 
the Indians. Some soldiers accompanied the missionaries to protect 
their persons and property, and soon a white lay population began to 
grow up, but the dominant interest was that of the friars, and most of 
the inhabitants recognizing Spanish authority were Indian converts. 

The Franciscans held that the chief virtues of life were chastity, 
celibacy, poverty, and abject humility, and the chief duties were fre- 
quent recitation of prayers, the mortification of the flesh, the sacrifice 
of the passions, and the renunciation of all social pleasures and secular 
interests for the sake of beatitude in future existence. Twenty-one 
missions were founded, none more than thirty miles from the ocean ; 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 83 



the first and most southern at San Diego, in 1769, the last and most 
northern one at Sonoma, in 1823. ****** 

The third era, that of Mexican dominion and pastoral life, lasted 
twenty-four years, beginning on the 9th of April, 1822, when the inde- 
pendence of Mexico from Spain was formally proclaimed and first offi- 
cially recognized at Monterey, the capital of the territory. The white 
population increased slowly. The Mexicans were not a colonizing 
people. The journey to Sonora by land was long, and beset by many 
hardships and dangers. The advantages of California were not gener- 
ally known or appreciated. Most of the men who became prominent 
under Mexican dominion were officers or soldiers, or the sons of sold- 
iers, sent out to protect the missions. Most of the early immigrants 
came at the request and with the assistance of the Government. On 
the 29th of November, 1777, the first town was established at San Jose" 
by a party of fourteen families, which had started from Sonora two 
years before ; and on the 4th of November, 1781, the pueblo of Lob 
Angeles was founded by another party. The rancheros and town 
people never agreed very well with the friars, who became subordi- 
nate in influence to the military and civil authorities soon after the 
Mexican flag was hoisted. The Indians ceased to obey their teachers, 
neglected their work, and plundered the mission property. In 1835 
the missions were secularized — that is, orders were issued that part of 
the herds and agricultural implements should be distributed among 
the neophytes and rancheros, and the remainder should be disposed 
of for the benefit of the public treasury ; but most of the property was 
soon in the possession of the chieftains and their friends. In 1843 
only 4,500 Indians remained at the missions, some of which had been 
deserted by the friars. 

The Mexican Californiana lived an idle, easy life. Their only in- 
come was derived from the hides and tallow of their neat cattle which 
throve on the wild grass in the open country. They had no work 
and little worry. They were happy ; they did not know any better. 
They had few excitements, and many of them had no anxieties. Most 
of them, and some of the old American residents, have regretted the 
change which has since taken place. From various miseries of life, 
common elsewhere, they were exempt. They had no lawyers, doctors, 
tax-gatherers, or newspapers ; no steamboats, railroads, stage-coaches, 
postoffices, regular mails, or stove-pipe hats. Bedsteads, chairs, ta- 
bles, wooden floors, and kid gloves, were rarities. They were a large, 
active, hardy, long-lived race, who made up by their fecundity for the 
failure of the friars to contribute to the population of the territory. It 
was fashionable in those days to have large families. Ignacio Vallejo 
had twelve children ; Joaquin Carrillo, (of Santa Barbara) twelve ; Jose* 
Noriega, ten ; Jose* Argiiello, thirteen ; Jose* Maria Pico, nine ; Fran- 
cisco Sepiilveda, eleven; Jose" Maria Ortega, eleven; and Juan Ban- 
dini, ten. These were all the founders of the large families of their 
respective names, and in most cases the progenitors of all of their 
name in the State. In the second generation there was no decline. 
Nasario Berreyesa had eleven children ; Jose* Sepiilveda, twelve ; Guada- 
lupe Vallejo, twelve; Josefa Vallejo, eleven ; Feliciano Soberanes, ten ; 



84 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



jTa 






and Jose" Antonio Castro, twenty-five. An old lady, atamed Juana 
Cota, died some years ago, leaving five hundred living descendants at 
the time of her death. There have been wonderful changes in Cali- 
fornia. 

As the children nearly all married, and the white families were not 
very numerous, (there were only seven hundred ranchos or country 
estates in 1846) it happened that nearly everybody was the relative of 
everybody else by blood or marriage, and where these two bonds failed, 
the spiritual relation of godfather or godmother supplied the deficiency. 
All were cousins or compadres (co-fathers). They were all one large 
family, not only willing but glad to entertain their relatives, and glad 
to bo entertained. Time with them was not money ; knowledge was 
not power. Leisure, horses, beef, and beans — the essentials in those 
days for making long journeys— -were abundant, and so their life was 
a succession of paseos and fiestas — riding and feasting. * * 

Two parties of trappers came in 1827, one of which entered the State 
at Fort Yuma, and thus the middle and southern transcontinental 
trails were opened. Among those who came with the trapper parties 
were Youht, Wolfskill, Workman, Sparks, Leese, and Graham. In 
18S9 Sutter came by sea, and established his fort, (at Sacramento) 
which afterwards became an important center for American influence. 
* • - :. jk * #.-,-.'* * * * * # * * 

In 1843 a party including Bidwell and Reading came. * * In 
1845 another, including Hensley and Snyder. * * Anglo Saxon 
husbands were married to five "Carrillos, of Santa Barbara, three Car- 
rillos of Santa Rosa, four Noriegos, four Bandinos, three Ortegas, of 
Santa Barbara, two Vallejos and one Soberanes. * * * 

The gold discovery was made on the 19th of January, 1848, a month 
before the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, and five months 
and a half before peace was finally proclaimed and the American title 
to California acknowledged by Mexico. In June the whole territory 
was excited, and on the 20th September the first public notice of the 
discovery printed in the Atlantic States, so far as I can learn, appeared 
in the Baltimore Sun, attracting little attention. Letters of army o£ 
ficers and small shipments of dust began to arrive in November, fol- 
lowed soon by fuller and more favorable accounts, and in January 
the States were in a fever. It was then that most of us determined 
to seek our fortunes in the distant El Dorado, in a land almost un- 
known to geography, on an ocean almost unknown to commerce. 
Those near the Atlantic started to double Cape Horn; those in the 
Mississippi Valley to cross the Rocky and the Snowy mountains. It 
was a bold adventure to go to a remote country of which we knew lit- 
tle, to engage in a business of which we knew nothing. Most of us 
after getting our outfits had no money left to bring us back or sup- 
port us in case of adversity. The amount of gold which had arrived 
from the mines was small, and the statements that there were rich 
claims for all who might come, were not justified by the knowledge 
of that time, though they were proved to be correct by subsequent 
discoveries. But the excitement was up, and we were not disposed to 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 85 



be critical or skeptical. The start -was accompanied by the warnings 
of the old men, the tears of the women, and the envious and congratu- 
latory remarks of our associates who wanted to come and could not. 
It was an impressive occasion, full of bright hopes and dark forebod- 
ings for many who remained as well as for all who came. * * 

Much we have seen, more we shall see. Our State is the Italy of 
the New World, possessing a dower of beauty not inferior to that of 
the Latin Peninsula ; but, unlike that, not destined to be fatal in its 
attraction. The descendants of the Goth, the Vandal, and the Hun, 
who crushed the ancient civilization of Italy under their fierce barbar- 
ism, of the German, the Frank, and the Spaniard whose favorite bat- 
tle fields for centuries were the plains of Lombardy and Naples, will 
come not to contend with us in arms, but to compete with us in arts. 
We shall gain victories and celebrate triumphs more numerous and 
more glorious than those of Republican and Imperial Rome, but our 
triumphs will be those of good will ; the triumphs of the architect, the 
road builder, the engineer, the inventor, the farmer, the miner, the 
scientist, the author, the painter, the musician, the orator. They will 
be celebrated not by processions, with Generals riding in gilded cars, 
dragging captive kings in chains, but by intellectual gatherings, art 
exhibitions, and industrial fairs. The highest civilization will make 
one of its chief centers here. The coast valleys, from Mendocino to 
San Diego, on account of the mildness and equability of their climate, 
surpassing even that of Italy, will be the favorite place of residence 
for many thousands from abroad. They will fill the land with wealth, 
luxury, and art. California will occupy in the hemisphere of the Pa- 
cific, as a focus of intellectual culture, a position similar to that long 
held by Attica in the basin of the Mediterranean. Looking confidently 
forward to such a result, hoping to see much of it accomplished in our 
own time, let us endeavor to lay a broad, solid, and generous founda- 
tion for the political, industrial, and educational greatness of our 
State ; let us be proud that we have taken part in a work which has 
contributed much and will contribute more to stimulate commerce and 
to extend civilization ; and, as a consequence, to enrich and benefit 
mankind, a work which will be forever prominent in the history of 
humanity. 

» • • 

Bar-room Wit. — Wixton happened in at a fashionable San Fran- 
cisco saloon, at the moment his friend Brown was in the act of raising 
a glass •«? "bitters" to his lips. " Hallo," said Wixton, "I thought 
you we're" a Temperance man ?" " So I am," replied Brown, " but 
man want's a little here below, and wants that little strong." "Then," 
improvised Brown, " He 'd better take it weak, you know, that he may 
take it long." 



• If we were only half as lenient to the living as we are to the dead, 
how much happiness might we render them, and from how much vain 
and bitter remorse might we be spared when the grave, the " all- 
atoning grave," has closed over them ? 



88 



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ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



TTHITE PINE. 

This remarkable country had a birth something like that of Minerva. 
It sprang into full-fledged existence without the intervention of partu- 
rition or the solicitude of maternal nursing. 

White Pine is distant from Sacramento, east, 594 miles, via of Elko, 
a town of about 2,500 inhabitants, situated on the line of the Central 
Pacific Railroad. The " Eberhardt " was the first silver mine discov- 
ered in 1866, but the great rush of emigration thither did not occur 
till the fall and winter of 1868 and spring of 1869. A thousand or 
more "prospectors" scattered themselves over the hills, and it was 
not long before a large number of other rich silver-bearing veins were 
discovered, several of which have since been worked with great profit. 

Treasure City, the principal town of the country, contains an esti- 
mated population of between four thousand five hundred and five 
thousand souls. Its location is on Treasure Hill, and its altitude above 
the level of the sea, 9,000 feet. The distance from the base to the 
summit of the mountain is 4,000 feet. It is believed by many that 
the interior of the mountain is an almost continuous mass of argen- 
tiferous wealth. 

Hamilton, a town at the foot of the mountain, contains already a 
population of nearly 4,000, while Sherman, another town in the vicin- 
ity, has 2,000 inhabitants. 

Three newspapers are published at White Pine, to wit : The News, 
at Treasure City ; the Inland Empire, a daily, at Hamilton, and the 
Telegraph, at Shermantown. 

Among the famous mines of this region, after the " Eberhardt," are 
the "Treasure City," "Hidden Treasure," "California," "Lady Bry- 
an," " Silver Star," and " Yellow Jacket." It is expected that at least 
a half hundred more veins, when properly opened and worked, will 
prove immensely profitable. The distance from Elko to White Pine 
is 125 miles, and it is reached by stage. 

The newness of this country, its isolated location, the shortness of 
its summers, and the severity of its climate, are, at the present time, 
all obstacles to that rapid occupancy which it is contended its vast 
mineral deposits must some day secure. It will not be long — a year 
or two at most — until a branch railroad will place its people in nearer 
social and commercial intercourse with San Francisco, when freights 
and provisions will be cheapened and the means presented to the peo- 
ple of surrounding themselves with those increased comforts now de- 
nied to them. 

The bullion product of White Pine is estimated at about $300,000 
per month. 

. •-•-« 

Consumption by Inoculation. — M. J. A. Villemin states in Comptes 
Bendus that he has in several instances produced tubercular disease 
in the lungs and intestines of rabbits by introducing beneath the skin 
of their ears small quantities of tubercular matter from a patient who 
died of consumption. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



THE MARIPOSA BIO TREES. 
BY PROF. KNOWLTOX. 

The Big Trees of California are a kind of Redwood. Their bark 
roughly resembles the bark of the cedar in its outward appearance, 
and is from six to twenty inches thick. Nine groves of these trees 
have been discovered. The most noted of these are the Calaveras 
Grove and the Mariposa Grove. The Calaveras grove contains ninety- 
two trees ; — ten thirty feet in diameter, and the others ranging from 
thirty down to fifteen feet through. Their height varies from one 
hundred and fifty to three hundred and twenty-five feet. In nearly 
every case the top seems to have been broken off, either by the weight 
of snow or the force of the wind, or by both combined. 

Through one section of the burnt-out trunk of one fallen tree a man 
can ride seventy-five feet sitting erect on horseback. 

The Mariposa grove is in the county of the same name, near the 
South Fork of the Merced River. The best way, indeed, almost the 
only possible way for ordinary travelers to reach it, is from Mariposa, 
whence a good carriage road runs by the way of White & Hatch's, to 
the house or hotel of Galen Clarke, situated at the head of carriage 
navigation, and at the beginning of the mountain-trail, onthe direct 
route to Yosemite Valley. 

It is common for parties going into or coming out of the valley to 
lie over one day at Clarke's, to visit the big trees, which are only five 
miles away, and may be readily reached in a single hour's ride, over 
an easy trail. Mr. Clarke has surveyed and nearly completed a car- 
riage road from the hotel to the trees, which will be ready for travel 
by the excursion season of 1870. 

On Wednesday, July 7, 1869, the writer, while on a " bit of a walk " 
into Yosemite by one trail, and out by the other, walked through this 
grove, and carefully measured the largest trees, under the guidance 
and with the assistance of Mr. Clarke. To prevent all misunderstand- 
ing, we measured every tree three feet from the ground, except where 
the base was burned away, when we took the girt seven and a half 
feet above the ground. 

The following figures are taken from the journal of that day, writ- 
ten upon the spot : 

The " Grizzly Giant," seven and one half feet from the ground girts 
seventy-eight and one-half feet. One hundred feet up, an immense 
branch, over six feet through, grows out horizontally some twenty 
feet, then turns at right angles and goes up some forty feet. Its ap- 
pearance suggests some huge gladiator uncovering his biceps, and 
drawing up his arm to " show his muscle." Three feet up this tree 
measures over one hundred feet, but several feet of this measurement 
came from projecting roots, where they swell out from the trunk into 
the mammoth diagonal braces or shores necessary to Stiffen and sup- 
port such a gigantic structure in its hold upon the earth. This is the 
largest tree now standing in the grove. The largest of the other trees, 
all measured three feet above the ground, gave the following results : 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



La Fayette 83 feet. 

The Governor 75 " 

Chas. Crocker 75 " 

The Chairman of the " Commissioners " 75 H 

Gov. Stanford 74 u 

Washington 72 " 

Pluto's Chimney 71 " 

The Big Diamond 65 " 

The Governor's Wife 62 " 

The Queen of the Forest 57£ " 

"The Governor" is a generic name, applied in honor of him who 
may happen to be the actual incumbent at any time. 

The same is true of the " Governor's Wife," whichlhas as graceful 
a form, and as dignified a bearing among trees, as such a lady should 
have among the women of the State. Then, too, she stands with a 
gentle inclination toward the Governor, which may not be without 
its suggestions to those fond of tracing analogies. 

The "Chairman of the Commissioners" is the largest of a group of 
eight, which stand grouped as if in consultation at a respectful dis- 
tance from the " Governor." 

" Pluto's Chimney " is an old stump, burned and blackened all over, 
inside and out. It is between forty and fifty feet high. On one side 
of the base is a huge opening, like a Puritan fire-place, and within the 
whole tree is burned out so that one can look up and out through a 
huge circular chimney. The roots and bark have been burned away. 
Before the burning the tree must have equaled the largest. 

Nearly in front of the cabin, and not far from the spring, stands a 
solitary tree, having its roots burned away, leaning south, and pre- 
senting a general appearance of trying to " swing round the circle." 
In view of all these circumstances, our party could do no better than 
to christen it " Andy Johnson." The only inappropriate thing that I 
could see about the application of such a name was the fact that the 
tree 6tood so near a spring of water. 

The "Big Diamond" is the largest of a group of four very straight 
and symmetrically formed trees occupying the corners of a regular 
rhombus, or lozenge, so exactly drawn as to suggest to any visitor the 
name " Diamond Group," with which we christened them. 

The Mariposa Grove is really composed of two groves, the upper 
and the lower, which approach within a half mile of each other. 

The upper grove contains three hundred and sixty-five trees, having 
one for each day in the year, with large ones for Sundays. The lower 
grove has two hundred and forty-one trees, generally smaller than 
those of the upper grove. The total number in both groves in July, 
1869, was six hundred and six. 

Within ten years several trees have fallen, and others fall from time 
to time, so that the most accurate count of them, made this year, 
might not tally with another equally careful count a year earlier or 
later. Among the fallen trees lies one known as the " Fallen Giant," 
which measures eighty-five feet around, three feet from the present 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 91 

base, though the bark, the sapwood, and the roots are all burned 
away. When standing this tree must have been by far the largest of 
both groves. 

Prof. Whitney's report contains the measurements of all the trees 
in the upper grove at the time of his survey. He did not survey the 
lower grove. 

• • • 

Deep-Sea Soundings. — Deep-sea soundings, as at present carried 
on in the British Navy, require a heavy weight of a hundred pounds 
or more, sliding on an iron shaft, terminating with a strong clamp, or 
drag, which opens when the bottom is reached, and closes by a spring 
the instant the apparatus is lifted. The weight is so contrived as to 
drop off when the bottom is reached, so that the line is drawn up with 
the clamp, but without the weight. In deep soundings this is indis- 
pensable, as the friction in lifting even the line alone, without any 
weight, is so great as to require the full strength of a steam-engine 
winding it on a reel. The nature of the bottom is determined by the 
fragments brought up ; and by a dredge, invented by Dr. Wallich, and 
occasionally used in the soundings of the Atlantic, several pounds 
weight were obtained of whatever material is present. 

Almost everywhere the floor of the Atlantic has been found to be 
covered by a peculiar soft, mealy, sticky substance, called oaze, by the 
marine surveyors. On careful microscopic examination this is found 
to be an impalpable powder, for the most part of carbonate of lime, 
nine-tenths of it consisting of minute animal organisms, about five per 
cent, of angular fragments of some hard mineral, and the rest flinty 
skeletons of animals an«l plants of the lowest and simplest structures. 
Occasionally, however, fragments of larger shells and even living star 
fishes have been obtained. The adhesiveness of the oaze is the result 
of the pressure of the heavy column of water above it. 



Cuba. — In view of the disturbed condition of affairs in Cuba, tho 
following facts, published by the friends of the insurgents, will be 
found interesting : 

"Length of the island, 690 miles ; average breadth, 65 miles ; square 
miles, 47,500; 632,000,000 acres. Population — Spaniards, including 
army, 100,000 ; Americans and foreigners. 95,000 ; Cubans, 65,000 ; to- 
tal whites, 1,050,000 ; free colored, 260,000 ; slaves and emancipados 
fighting with the patriots, 390,000. Grand total, 1,700,000. Exports, 
$80,000,000; imports, $70,000,000; annual production, $190,000,000. 
Taxes annually paid up to Spain, $37,500,000. Ratio of Spaniards to 
population, six per cent. ; ratio of their robbery to value of production, 
thirty-five per cent." 



Rolling Stock op the Pacific Railroad. — The Union Pacific 
Railroad employs about 155 locomotives, and 4,200 cars — including 
Pullman, passenger and freight cars. On the Central road 175 loco- 
motives are employed, and about 2,812 cars of all descriptions. 



92 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Cuke op Consumption. — Any means of curing this insidious and 
fatal malady, must be hailed as a benefit of no ordinary value to the 
human race. A remedy which is stated to have this effect was brought 
before the Academy of Sciences, on the 12th of June. Raw beef or 
mutton is reduced to a pulp in a mortar, and afterwards passed through 
a sieve, to separate any tendinous matter. It is then made into balls, 
which are to bo rolled in sugar, or it is merely sweetened with sugar, 
and administered in spoonfuls, to the amount of from one to three 
hundred grammes daily. The patient must use as a drink about one 
hundred grammes of the pulp diffused through five hundred grammes 
of water sweetened with sugar; also three hundred grammes of 
sweetened water, to which one hundred grammes of alcohol at 
20° Baume have been added, are to be taken at the rate of one 
spoonful every hour. The doses and intervals between them must be 
regulated, to some extent, by the susceptibility of the patient. The 
raw meat is supposed to have a reconstituent action, and the alcohol a 
direct effect on the hematose. Persons very far gone in consumption, 
and some even who could not have survived more than a few hours, 
are stated to have been completely recovered by this combination of 

curative agents. 

«•» 

BIRDS IN CALIFORNIA. 

Gov. Haight, in his Message, says : " It is desirable that some legis- 
lation should be had to prevent the indiscriminate snaring and killing 
of wild birds, which are so useful to the farmer in the destruction of 
insects." 

The localities in this State where birds are found are rare. One 
may make a day's journey through any of the large valleys without 
encountering other of the feathered tribe than an oocasional flock of 
ground-sparrows. In the pine-forests of the mountains the same 
absence is noted. The long, dry summers of California parch the 
earth and destroy insect life. Among the pines there is no food to 
support birds ; in consequence, the few that we have are found in the 
neighborhood of farm-houses, where there are vegetable gardens, 
^grapes, fruits and grain-fields. Along the river-courses there is also a 
scattered bird-population. 

The Governor continues : " Upon the continent of Europe extraor- 
dinary measures are being adopted to protect and propagate varieties 
of small birds, the slaughter of which has been going on in this State 
for some years, to the great detriment of agriculture." 

In several of the large grain-producing counties, the farmers com- 
plain that the increase of quails, under the protection of the Game 
Law, has been an injury to them instead of a benefit. These take a 
very selfish and narrow-minded view of the subject. The grain con- 
sumed by a few covies of quail would hardly be missed in the aggre- 
gate crop. The farmers have, to be sure, suffered some damage from 
careless sportsmen, in using inflammable wads, which have been the 
means of firing their stacks. It is very seldom, however, that these 
accidents occur ; besides, a remedy can be applied, in most instances. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 93 

There is a companionship about the quail, even if it did not afford 
such delicate meat for the table in its season, that ought to secure for 
it some immunity. 

The Governor's suggestion is worthy the most respectful attention 
of the Legislature. In Contra Costa County, a few years ago, the 
sportsmen could g-> into almost any of the watered ravines or chap- 
paral-patchcs and bag a due proportion of quails. Now, in visiting 
the same localities, the solitude is relieved only by tho hateful 
presence of traps, which tell their own story. They have been the 
means of entirely exterminating the quail family in all the cultivated 
regions. We have heard cf a party, who, in one season of trapping 
in that county, furnished the market with twenty-eight hundred 
dozens of birds. These, at $1 25 per dozen (market price), would 
realize §3,500. How long, at such a rate of slaughter, will it be 
before we shall be compelled to forego the pleasure of partaking of 
quail breakfasts? 

On a kindred subject His Excellency holds this language: "The 
subject of protecting the different varieties of fish in our rivers and 
mountain-lakes, and stocking these waters with new varieties, is also 
worthy of your attention. Many valuable varieties offish from East- 
ern waters could be introduced and multiplied here at a small 
expense. This subject is exciting much interest in many of the 
States east of the Mountains." 



The Onion a Disinfectant. — According to the observations of an 
American writer, (J. B. Wolff,) the onion is a disinfectant. He states 
that, in the Spring of .1849, he was in charge of 100 men on ship- 
board, with the cholera raging among them. They had onions, which 
a number cf the men ate freely, and those who did so were soon 
attacked, and nearly all died. As soon as this discovery wa3 made, 
their use wa3 forbidden. After mature reflection, Mr. Wolff came to 
the conclusion that onions should never be eaten during tho preva- 
lence of epidemics, for tho reason that they absorb the virus, and 
communicate the disease ; and that the proper use for them i3 sliced 
and placed in the sick room, and replaced with fresh ones every few 
hours. It is a well-established fact, he observes, attested by his own 
personal knowledge, that onions will extract the poison of snakes ; 
some kinds cf mud will do the came. After maintaining the foregoing 
opinion for eighteen years, he remarks : " I have found the following 
well attested : Ouions placed in the room whero there is small-pox will 
blister and decompose with great rapidity ; not only so, but will pre- 
vent the spread of the disease. I think, as a disinfectant they have 
no equal, when x>roperly used ; but keep them out of tho stomach." 



Australian Pzarls. — The pearl fishery-grounds recently dis- 
covered in Western Australia, extend along tho coast for 1,000 miles. 
Upward of 00 tons of pearl oysters were fished up in December, 1868, 
and sold for £100 per ton. 



94 *ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



The Strength op Rattlesnake Poison.— Dr. Mitchell, who has 
conducted numerous experiments upon the strength and properties of 
this poison, states the following conclusions: 1. One fourth of a drop 
of the venom is fatal to pigeons under the age of four months. One 
eighth of a drop is frequently a fatal dose. 2. The venom is absolutely 
harmless when swallowed, because it is incapable of passing through 
the mucous surfaces ; it undergoes change during digestion, which 
allows it to enter the blood as a harmless substance, or to escape from 
the digestive canal in an equally innocent form. 3. Twenty-four 
hours after it has been swallowed, the contents of the bowel contain 
no poison. 4. The rectum of the pigeon does not absorb the venom, 
and it causes no injury when placed on the conjunctiva of animals. 
5. The venom passes through the membranes of the brain, and more 
swiftly through the peritoneum and pericardium. 6. When the 
venom passes through the peritoneum, it so affects the walls of the capil- 
laries as to allow of their rupture, and of the consequent escape of 
blood. The same phenomena appear on the bare surface of muscles 
thus poisoned. 

Insects. — Insects are largely endowed with the faculty of sight ; 
for their eyes, though unable to turn, are infinitely multiplied, and 
compensate by quantity for their want of motion. To give an idea of 
the numbers some orders possess, I may mention that to one species 
of butterfly, by no means among the largest, is allotted nearly 35,000 
eyes. These are distributed over every part of the body, and thus, 
whatever may be the position of the animal, no danger can approach 
unperceived, as a sentinel keeps watch in every quarter. 



Cure for Hydrophobia. — The Albany Weening Journal publishes 
the following alleged infallible cure for hydrophobia. As physicians 
hold that the disease is incurable, there can of course be no harm in 
trying it : " Dissolve a pint of common table-salt in a pint of boiling 
water, scarify the part affected freely, then apply the salt water with 
a cloth as warm as the patient can bear it, repeating the same for at 
'least an hour. The same recipe has been successfully applied for the 
bite of a rattlesnake." ( 

Animal Grafts. — M. Paul Bert informs the French Academy of 
fresh experiments in grafting the tails of rats upon other rats. He 
finds that his curious process has succeeded after certain tails have 
been removed from the animals to which they belonged, and placed 
under the following conditions : 1. Exposed to the action of the air in 
a closed tube for 72 hours, at a temperature of 44° to 46° F. 2. After 
exposure to a humid heat of 135° F. 3. After exposure to a tempera- 
ture of 3° F. 4. After complete dessication. 5. After complete dessi- 
cation, and exposure to dry heat of 212° F. The so-called " complete 
dessication" was effected in vacuo. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 95 



Jews in Daghestan, Western Asia. — In Daghestan, a territory 
in Asia, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, live ten thousand Jewish 
families. The following points of information about them have 
recently been obtained by a scientific explorer. They aro Rabbinites, 
and believe in the written and oral law. Some of them are diligent 
students of the Babylonian Talmud. They accept a prevailing tradi- 
tion that they aro descended from the exiled ten tribes, and that they 
immigrated about 720 before the vulgar era. The inhabitants of this 
and the adjoining countries are Bactrians, Persians,' and Medians — 
that is, of a common origin, and speak the Zend and Parsi or Guebri 
language. The Jews living among them speak the Parsi. In Hebrew 
they always aspirate the letters. In their business nearly everything 
is transacted by word of mouth. When documents become necessary 
they use the language of the country. 



Bees' Eggs, and their Products.— M. H. Landois recites experi- 
ments he made to test the truth of the proposition laid down by 
Dzierzon and Von Siebold — that working bees are hatched from eggs 
which the queen fertilizes, while male bees issue from eggs not so 
fecundated. By carefully removing eggs from cells destined for the 
workers to those of the males, and vice versa, he altered the nature of 
their inmates. Thus (he says) the difference of the food supplied to 
the inhabitants of the two kinds of cell determines whether they will 
be males or workers. 



"KING OF PADT." 

A few months age there came among us a strange- looking man, tall, delieatalj 
formed, with flowing locks, and a hat the brim of which, for width, might pat to 
shame the historic picture of "Old Secesh." This man announced himself as Dr. 
J. J. McBride, ' ' King of Pain." His manners were affable, and his roice soft and 
mnsical as a woman's. He introduced himself by delivering lectures on the street- 
corners, in the evenings. Either his eloquence was persuasive or his truths con- 
vincing, for in a short time the doors of his office were besieged by multitudes of 
people, clamorous for precedence in obtaining his professional services. The longer 
he remained, the greater his popularity became. He offered his medicine to the 
public with the assurance that it would cure all the painful, chronic, and most of the 
epidemical, diseases to which our climate is subject. 

It is one of the peculiarities of this man, whose practice has been so astonishingly 
successful, to appear on the streets daily in a carriage drawn alternately by four and 
six gray horses. Though this is an unusual spectacle, and in the case of most others 
might provoke derision, to the ' 'King of Pain" it seems an eccentricity indulged by 
acknowledged right. The urbanity of his manners disarms criticism, while the very 
generous nature of his public charities has secured him universal praise. 

One of the ' 'King's" specialties is, to pronounce upon the nature of diseases with- 
out asking questions; and he maintains that, when his medicine receives a fair trial. 
It never fails to afford immediate relief. The remarkable cure wrought in the case of 
William Ballon, Esq., speaks highly in its favor. Indeed, we can assert, in all can- 
dor, that many other of our friends extol its efficacy as an immediate restorative. 

The eccentricities of the "King of Pain" must not cause people to prejudge him. 
A closer acquaintance will prove that he possesses the intelligence and affability of 
the true gentleman. 



96 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

TELE SADDLERY AND HARNESS BUSINESS. 

It is but a few years since the largest portion of harness and saddlery used on the 
Pacific Coast was manufactured in the Eastern States, shipped to this city, and here 
sold at enormous profits. The common inquiry among purchasers was, "Do you 
keep Eastern made harness?" They were not at that time aware, nor had the fact 
entirely developed itself among our own people, that we possessed all the material 
for producing as good articles in this line as was anywhere to be found in the Atlantic 
States. One of our largest manufacturing houses is that of Stone & Ilayden. This 
firm now turns out every description of Baddlery hardware, harness and patent 
leather, saddle trees, snake whips, team lashes, riding bridles, martingales, horse 
collars of every grade and quality, harness — from th* commonest plow-horse harness, 
of the toughest, most durable and cheapest qualities to the mast elegant styles used 
for carriage horses. At first they encountered the common prejudice when they 
offered home made articles to individual patrons or to the trade. Happily, the diffi- 
culty is now overcome. The articles enumerated as manufactured by this firm are 
generally preferred to those imported from abroad. They are not only found to be 
superior in quality, but they can afford to sell them at much lower prices. On this 
account, but few articles in the line of saddlery and harness are now imported. Our 
excellent material , and the skill of our mechanics have almost entirely driven that 
kind of competition from the field. The firm of Stone & Hay den gives employment 
to more than two hundred workmen. 

One of tbe partners, Mr. Hayden, who resides at the East, has had a life-long 
experience at the saddlery and harness business. He is a member of the firms of 
Hayden, Wilson & Allen, St. Louis, Mo.; Hayden & Kay, Chicago, HI.; Hayden & 
Letchworth, Auburn, N. Y. ; Hayden & Baldwin, Detroit, Mich.; Hayden & Baker, 
Columbus, Ohio; Wilson & Hayden, Cincinnati, Ohio; Stone & Hayden, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. ; besides being the sole proprietor of an establishment in New York City, 
and another in Newark, New Jersey, The extensive acquaintance which his ramified 
business operations secures to him in the East, gives the firm bearing his name in 
this city a prestige which it might not otherwise, in so large a degree, have enjoyed. 
Among the immigrants who yearly arrive in this State, there are many who enquire 
for hi 8 San Francisco house, knowing that it must have stability, because qf the sev- 
eral million dollars which Mr. Hayden has, in several of the firms named, put into 
the Baddlery and harness business. 



Standard Soap Company. 

Several of our San Francisco manufactories have worked their way up from small 
beginnings to successful enterprises on a large scale. Of this number is the Standard 
Soap Company, whose business is now ramified pretty much over the entire 
Pacific Ciast. The Company has proved that we ought not to be, and are not, de- 
pendent upon importations, either for toilet or the ordinary cleansing soaps and wash- 
ing powders, which they produce in quality and quantity equal to the very finest 
brands in the market. 



Kane's Condensed Soap. 

Parrish &Co. assert that the labor of rubbing is avoided, and 85 per cent, saved 
in transportation, by the use of the Condensed Soap. They claim for it, also, the 
properties of a grease eradicator, and exhibit many testimonials to prove that the soap 
is worthy of the high reputation it enjoys. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA 

fair Ifrintittg $Hut f 

529 California Street, 




i»as «a 



trams 



NEATLY EXECUTED, 



AT LOWEST PEICES 



Country Orders Promptly Attended to. 



QUICK TIME AND CHEAP FARES! 

FROM 
TO 

NEW YORK * LIVERPOOL! 

The Great Overland Route 

CENTRAL AND WESTERN PACIFIC 

Is now in Complete running order from 

Sj^HST FE/A1TOISOO 

To the 

ATLANTIC SEA BOARD. 

Through Express Trains leave San Francisco daily, 
making prompt connections with the several Railway 
Lines in the Eastern States, for all the Cities of the 
United States and Canadas, and connecting at 

MEW YORK 

WITH THE SETERAL STEAMER LINES TO 

EnSTG-LAJSTD, FH^lZSTCE, 

AMS> Alili EUROPEAN PORTS. 



Through Time Going East. 

From San Francisco to Omaha, 4 days and 7 hours; 
to Chicago, 5 days and 7 hours; to New York, 7 days. 

Through First-Class Fare Reduced and 
Payable in Currency. 

From San Francisco to Omaha, $111 ; to St. Louis, 
$129; to Chicago, $130; to New York, $150; to 
Boston, $153. 



Silver Palace Sleeping Coaches 

SECOND TO NONE IN THE WORLD. 

Are run daily, from San Francisco to New York and intermediate points. These 
Drawing Room Cars by day, ami Bleeping Cars l>y night, are unexcelled for comfort 
and convenience to the passenger while en route — combining the elegance of a 
private parlor and all accommodations pertaining to a well furnished chamber, with 
comfortable couches, clean bedding, etc, A competent Porter accompanies each car 
to atttend to the wants of our patrons. 

A SPECIAL TRAIN OP 

PALACE HOTEL DRAWING ROOM 
AND SLEEPING CARS, 

-WILL LEAVE SAN FRANCISCO EVERY WEDNESDAY, 
AT 7 A. M. 

Arriving at Omaha, Saturday afternoon; Chicago, Sunday, 

3.15 p. m ; Philadelphia, Monday, 8 p. m.; Baltimore, 

Monday, 8.30 p. m.; Washington City, Monday, 

10 p. m.; New York City, Monday, 10.30 p.m. 

FARE by this special train between Omaha and San Francisco, including Double 
Berth in sleeping car, $168, currency. Meals will be served on the train, viz : 
Breakfast from 7 to 9, SI. Lunch from 11 to 2, Card prices. Dinner from i to 6, SI. 50. 

This Train is especially designed for through passengers, 

And will stop only at points necessary for fuel and water. 

SECOND CL.ASS TRAINS Leave San Francisco daily, (Sundays excepted). 
Fare to Omaha, $60; St. Louis, $60; Chicago. $60; New York, $66.75. 

CHILDREN not over TWELVE (12) YEARS of age Half Fare ; under FIVE 
YEARS of age, Free. 

100 POUNDS OF BAGGAGE (Per Adult Passenger,) Free. 50 lbs. 
of Baggage per Child, between 5 and 12 years of age, Free. 

EXTRA BAGGAGE (Over 100 pounds) between Sacramento and Omaha 
(currency) $15 per 100 pounds/ 



THROUGH TICKET OFFICE : 



415 



CALIFORNIA STREET, 

Sfixx Francisco. 



THROUGH FREIGHTS from San Francisco to New York and 

other Eastern Cities, contracted through at low rates. 

MARK GOODS CARE C. P. R. R. 

MONET SAVED toy Purchasing TICKETS at tire Company's 
Office in San Francisco. 

T. H. GOODMAN, A. N. TOWNE, 

Gen. Passenger Agent. Gen. Superintendent. 



FXVB FIRST PREMIUMS 

III F.£ 1F1W 






Coffee and Spice Mills, 

No. 707 SANSON E STREET, 

Between Jackson and Pacific, SAN FKANCISCO. 



These Mills have been in operation for six years, and are well 
known throughout the entire country of the Pacific Coast. The 
purity of the coffee and spices which they turn out has commended 
them to families and hotels, where their popularity is unbounded. 
They are neither drugged, sanded nor mixed, but are manufactured 
from the clean berry, without the addition of any foreign matter 
whatever. 

The coffee and spices of these Mills have taken first premiums at 
all the State and Mechanics' Fairs where they were exhibited. They 
were awarded first premiums at the Mechanics' Fairs of 1865 and 18G8, 
and three first premiums from the State Agricultural Fair of 1868. 

None but the choicest Manila, Java and Costa Rica berries are used 
in the manufacture of the Chartres Coffee ; millions of pounds of 
which have thus far found a ready market. The berries are all picked 
and cleaned before roasting. A large annual shipment of the coffee 
and spices is made to Nevada, Utah, Oregon and Washington Terri- 
tory, in addition to the vast quantities used in the California trade. 
A steady increase of patronage has compelled an enlargement of the 
facilities of these mills, and a considerable addition to the number of 
hands employed. 

The proprietor, Charles Bernard, also conducts an extensive busi- 
ness in Cream of Tartar, Saleratus and Carbonate of Soda. 

Those who have used the Chartres Coffee prefer it to that which is 
roasted, ground and made into a drinking beverage in their own 
families. 



9 



Importers and Manufacturers of 

SADDLERY, HARNESS, HORSE COLLARS, 

SADDLE TREES, WHIPS AND LASHES OF 

EVERY DESCRIPTION, AND ALL 

KINDS OF SADDLERY AND 

HARNESS WARES, 

WHOLESALE A.3STID RETAIL, 

Nos. 422 and 424 Battery St., San Francisco. 

R. 8TONC2, San Francisco. P. HAYDEN, New York. 

ROSS, DEMPSTER & CO. 

Shipping and Commission Merchants, 

29 Broad Street, New York, and 105, 107 and 109 California St., S. F. 
SOLE AGENTS ON PACIFIC COAST FOR 

STEAM FIRE- PROOF SAFES, 

(SJNBORJVS PATENT.) 

BURGLAR-PROOF SAFES, 

(Weldeed Iron and Steel. Terwitligers Patent.) 

SARGENT & GREEN LEAF'S BANK LOOKS. 



Eagle Brand Condensed Milk and Coffee, Baker's Castor Oil and Saleratus, Ridge- 
wood, Metropolitan and Pacific White Lead, Consignees for Kensett's Peaches, Corn 
and Peas; Le Brun Oysters and Myer's Oysters, and Eastern Cooperage Stock. Liberal 
Advances made on approved Consignments. Orders for Purchase and Sale of California 
Wool, Hides, Grain, Flour and other Produce carefully executed. 



TREADWELL * CO. 

Importers and Manufacturers of 

AGRICULTURAL GOODS 

AND HARDWARE, 

Cor. Market and Fremont Sts„ SAN FRANCISCO, 

AND 

SACRAMENTO, MAKYSVILLE, AND STOCKTON. 



Sole Agents for 
Hoadley's Threshing Engines, (best in use,) Russell's Im- 
proved Threshers, (best in use,) Haines' Headers, -with 
patent adjustable Seat, (made by Wood,) no other 
Headers have this Seat, Wood's Prize Mowers, 
Kirby's Self-Rake Reapers, Gaboon's Power and Hand Seed 
Sowers, Treadwell's Gang Plow— Haine's Patent. 

ROPE, NAILS, AND A FULL STOCK OF HARDWARE. 



CALIFORNIA 



Billiard Table Manufactory. 

JACOB STRAHLE & CO. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR PHELAN'S PATENT CUSHIONS. 

Received ^ ^ ■ _ ' ' *" . ' "IS? And 



FIRST ^^S^^^mm^ SOCIETY'S 
Premium s—*^* S^^^ lll^^ Gold Wledal 

AT LAST STATE FAIR HELD AT SACRAMENTO. 

Wholesale and Retail dealers in Laurel, Maple, 

Redwood, and other California and Foreign 

Fancy Woods, Solid and Veneers. 

OFFICE AND SALE-BOOMS: 

412 Market Street, bet. Battery and Sansome, 

Manufactory, corner of Sixteenth and DeHaro Streets, Potrero. 



GEO. C. SHREVE. GEO. BONNY. 

GEO. C. SHEEVE & CO. 
WATCHES, DIAMONDS, JEWELRY, 

AND SILVERWARE, 

No. 106 Montgomery Street, 

(Occidental Hotel Building.) SAN FRANCISCO. 
Blake, Rabbins &:€£&. 

Importers and Jobbers of 

JW Va.fi./iirLci r f^cL/uef-, 

Paper Bags, Card Stock, Straw Paper, Straw and Binders' Boards, 

Black and Colored Inks, Bronzes, <5tc. 

5J6 ^Sacramcnfo anb <5i9 ®ainmercial $>i& n 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Francis Blake, i 

James Moffitt, \ San Francisoo. 

Chas. f. Robbins, ) >ew York Office, 18 & 20 Yesey Street. 

James W. Towne, New York. 



Prize Boot & Shoe Maker, 

327 and 329 BUSH STEEET, 

Between Montgomery and Kearny, San FlcltlCiSCO, 

HAS RECEIVED SEVEN FIRST CLASS PREMIUMS, 

BEING ONE FOR EVERY STATE AND 

LOCAL FAIR AT WHICH HE 

HAS EXHIBITED. 



[From the Alta California of Oct, 30, 1869.] 

The bazars and shops of the entire world might be ransacked in 
vain to outdo the neatness of design and elegance of finish, with which 
our local boot and shoemakers have performed their work, as it is pre- 
sented to us at the Fair. The Chinese imagine they are experts in 
the construction of clogs and slippers, and in the silliness of their 
presumption, have actually put several bespangled pairs on exhibi- 
tion. The meretriciousness of their claim is discovered in the cheap 
material used, and the childlike designs of their ornamentation. 
They can no more compare with the splendid work performed by Kel- 
ley, than the light of the firefly can be compared to that of the sun. 

* -x- * * if an y other city on the face of the globe contains 
cordwainers, who can turn out better work, let her produce them and 
take the palm. 



J. H. O'BRIEN. GEO. E. REID. 



IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 



ALL KINDS of CIAS FIXTURES 

And Plumbing Goods, 
539 CALIFORNIA ST., NEAR KEARNY. 

Constantly on hand and for Bale, Plain and Galvanized Iron and Lead Pipe, Fittings 

and Cocks, for Gas, Water and Steam. Novelties in Gas Fixtures arriving 

daily. Gas and Water Pipe introduced into Buildings in the most 

thorough and substantial manner. 



KELLY, WALSH & CO., 

{Successors to 1). J. OLIVER,) 

IMPORTERS OP 

Corner of Front and Pine Streets, San Francisco. 

[From the Alta California, May 10, 1867.] 

" The first floor of this large importing establishment is completely 
packed, from ground well nigh to the ceiling, with a vast assortment 
of paints, brushes, paraffine and castor, olive and other oils. One side 
is occupied with shelves, upon which a large stock of Winsor & New- 
ton's artists' materials are arranged. In the second story is to be found 
a very large and varied supply of French and English glass, including 
crystal-sheet double-thick — a superior article, used for windows. The 
glass is of all sizes, from 8x10 to 40x60. Kelly, Walsh & Co. are agents 
for the leading and most celebrated factories in Belgium and England. 
They keep on hand a full stock of Chance, Brothers & Co.'s window 
glass, which has obtained a reputation for excellence that extends all 
over the world. The basement is an immense receptacle for number- 
less barrels and cases of oil — linseed (boiled and raw), lard, sperm, 
neatsfoot, coal (which is a large item in the stock), and China oil — the 
latter is used for illuminating purposes, and, it is said, as an article of 
food by the natives of that country. Here are stored, also, large quan- 
tities of Tilden's varnishes, alcohol in cases, and Jules' white lead, in 
tierces and kegs containing twenty-five and fifty pounds. The base- 
ment is provided with tanks for boiled oils. There are also vessels for 
pressing sperm oil, and preparing it in suitable quantities for sale. 
Zinc, Paints, X<eads. 

" Among the commodities Kelly, Walsh & Co. import in large quantities may be 
mentioned Vielle Montague Company's French zinc, which fur a time was employed 
as a substitute for English and American white leads. It is imported from Liege and 
, Paris, and, when ground in oil, is reported to be the most economical white paint 
I manufactured, either for inside finishing Or for ordinary house painting. In addition 
to French zinc, they have in their establishment ample supplies of Atlantic, Jewett 
& Son's, and " Z in diamond" brand of English white lead, which are considered the 
best that come to this market. In reference to paints in general, it has to be stated 
that parties most particular in having their work done well bestow their patronage 
upon this house. The best description of paint is known by i> e evenness of surface, 
solidity of body, pureness of color, and, generally, by good covering qualities. The 
paints used in the buildings of the Pacific Insurance Company and Bank of California 
were obtained from this establishment. 

Brushes and ArtistV Material*. 

"Their house is quite complete in supply of the very numerous descriptions of 
articles, such as brushes (J. J. Adams', of New York, manufacture, principally), and 
artists' materials. To enumerate them would occupy entirely too much space, allu- 
sion oau only be made to the several classes. 

1 ' The locality of the establishment is very favorable, being at the same time cen- 
tral and in proximity to the water front, and the great thoroughfares where trade 
has made ite firmest and appropriate footing." 

KELLY, WALSH & CO, 

Corner Front and Pine Streets, SAN FRANCISCO. 



A. B. FALKINBURGH. 



R. P. THOMAS. 



STANDARD 




anufactnrers of 



ALSO THEIR 



Erasive "Washing Powder. 



204 SACRAMENTO STREET, 

Between Front and Davis, 

®^,33l Francisco. 



BRASS fc BELL FOUNDRY, 

Ooraer of Mission and Fremont Sts., San Francisco. 



Manufacturers of 

CHURCH 

STEAMBOAT 
Sells and Gongs, 

Brass Castings of all kinds, 

FIRE ENGINES, 

Force and Lift Pumps, 

Hose Couplings. 




Babbit Metal, Water 

Gauges and Glass 

Tubes for Steam 

Boilers, Steam 

Gauges, Magnetic 

Gauges, Steam Cocks 

and Valves of all 

descriptions. 

STEAM WHISTLES, 



Hydraulic Pipes and Nozzles, 

FOR MINING PURPOSES?. 

IRON PIPE PUKNISHED WITH PITTINGS. 

FASSETT, McCAULLEY & CO. 

220 CLAY ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Main Street, Antioch. 

Main Street, Pacheco, 

Moore's Landing, 

Iron House Landing:. 

PROPRIETORS OF STEAMERS 

"WASHINGTON," 

"PILOT," 

"ALICE," 

AND BARGES 

"MONTE DIABLO," 

"MOUNT EDEN," 

" MATILDE." 



This magnificent structure, the finest hotel building on the Pacific 
coast, perhaps equal to the finest in the United States, is located on the 
corner of Market and Montgomery streets. It will he completed and 
occupied about the first of May, with Mr. G. S. Johnson as lessee, and 
Wm. P. Ridgeway as acting manager. Mr. Johnson is the present 
popular and generous host of the Lick House, with Mr. Ridgeway as 
Superintendent ; both widely known and greatly esteemed by the 
traveling public. 

The Grand Hotel is built in two divisions, Stevenson street dividing 
it in the middle from New Montgomery to Second street. The con- 
nection between the two parts will be made by enclosed passage ways 
or bridges. The ground front on Market street, from New Mont- 
gomery to Second, is 205 feet, and from the corner of Market down 
New Montgomery to Jesse street, 330 feet. The building is four 
stories high, including the attic with Mansard roof, and excluding 
basement. The roof on the Market street front, is surmounted by two 
towers and an imposing octagonal dome, to be used as an observatory. 
The architecture of the building is French, known as the renaissance 
style, which is highly decorative and imposing. 

The ground floor on three fronts of the building will be let for 
stores — twenty in number. The main entrance will be on Mont- 
gomery street, and the entire building will contain four hundred 
rooms, to be furnished in the most elegant manner. All the larger 
suite rooms will have baths and water closets attached. The carpets 
will come from England, the crockery ware from France, the silver 
ware from New York, and furniture be partly of home manufac- 
ture, and partly imported from the East. 

This splendid structure is the property of the Montgomery street 
Extension Company. Mr. J. P. Gaynor, was the architect. The brick 
work was done by Geo. D. Nagle, and the carpenter work by E. L. 
Mayberry. The cost of the building will be over $400,000. 



KANE'S 



Without Eubbing, 

Acknowledged 

To be the Cheapest 
and best Soap 
ever discovered. 




SAVES TIME, 

LABOR AND MONEY. 



85 Per cent, saved in cost of 
transportation. 

15 pounds go further than 100 
pounds of any other soap in the 
market. 

Removes pitch, paint, tar, grease 
and all kinds of adhesive filth. 

Cleans Flannels without shrink- 
ing them, and makes them soft 
as new. 

BETTER THAN CASTILE SOAP 
For Toilet Purposes. 

Tut up in boxes of 20 pounds eacfi, at 
three dollars per box. 

LIBERAL DISCOUNT TO THE TRADE. 

jg@°* Send to the Parrish Works, San Francisco, for 
Terms and a Circular. 



iilllll illliiS 1 Gi. 

108 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRAKCISCO, 

SOLE AGENTS ON THE PACIFIC COAST FOE 

DUPONT'S CELEBRATED 
BLASTING, CANNON, 

MUSKET, and SPORTING 
POWDER. 

WINCHESTER'S Repeating Rifles, Carbines, Rifled 
Muskets, and Fined Ammunition. 

LAKE SUPERIOR AND PACIFIC FUSE COM- 
PANY'S Never Failing Safety Fuse. 



ASSAYING AND REFINING WORKS, 

4 I 6 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



DIRECTORS. 

JOHN PARROTT, W. G. RALSTON, A. HAYWARD, 

CHAS. E. McLANE, L. A. GARNETT. 

L. A. GARNETT, JOHN HEWSTON, Jr., 

Manager. Supt. and Chemist. 

Assay Returns for unparted Gold or Silver Bars made in Twenty-four Hours. 
Deposits Refined, and returns made in Coin or Fine Bars in Forty-eight Hours. 



With all the latest improvements is connected with the 
San Francisco Assaying and Refining Works 

For the Analysis of Ores, Minerals, Metals, Soils, "Waters and the 
Products of the Arts. 
The various applications of Chemistry to Working cf Metals, Manufactures, Agricul- 
ture, &c, will receive special attention. 

Refer to all the Bankers, and Gold Dnst dealers, of California. 




tt'tftt IbttL 




MONTGOMERY STREET, 
San Francisco, 

Extends 275 Feet Front from Bush to Sutter St. 

CONTAINS 3CO ROOMS; NEW ADDITION I | 2, 
MAKING 412 ROOMS IN ALL. 

Bath Rooms on each Floor. 



Reading, Billiard and Bar Room, Barber's Shop, 
Steam Laundry, and all other appoint- 
ments usually found in a 
First-Class Hotel. 



IMPORTEKS OIF 



Metals, Stoves & Ranges, 

H@ll@w Wif© 8 ffii Wte© &©* 

112 and 114 BATTEEY STREET, 
SAN FEANCISCO. 



GEO. T. HAWLEY,/ jM. C. HAWLEY 

San Francisco. ) ( New York. 

Marcus C. Hawley & Co. 

^ IMPORTERS OF 

AND 

Agricultural Implements. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

BUCKEYE MOWER & REAPER, 

BURDSCK HAY CUTTER, 

[And EUREKA GANG PLOW, 

Nos. 108 and 110 Front Street, 
s^ur fr^ jr Cisco. 



THE BANK OF CALIFORNIA, 

SAINT FRANCISCO. 

CAPITAL, ~- - $.1,000,000. 

D. O. MILLS President. 

W. I '. RALST( )N Cashier. 

-a.g-:e3:n'ts s 

In Now York MESSRS. LEES & WALLER 

In Boston TRKMONT NATIONAL BANK 

In London . . . ORIENTAL BANK CORPORATION 
The Bank 1ms Agencies at VIRGINIA CITY, GOLD 
HILL, WHITE PINK, and Correspondents at all the 
principal mining districts and interior towns of the 
Pacific Coast. 

LETTERS OF CREDIT ISSUED, 

Available for the purchase of Merchandise throughout 
the United States, Europe, India, China, Japan and 
Australia. 

EXCHANGE FOR SALE, 

ON 

Chicago and St. Louis. 

DRAW DIRECT ON 
London, Vienna, 

Dnblin, Leipsic, 

Paris, Sydney, 

SI. Petersburgli, Melbourne, 

Amsterdam, Yokohama, 

Hamburg, Shanghae, 

Bremen, Hongkong, 

Frankfort on the Main. 



A &F0B t M 6 dlicml Mis qq w@i 

lore tta IOO.0QG ^ersoi 




BEAR TESTIMONY TO TH£ 



ram mm mm 



OF 



Dr. J. Walker's 





JT IS NOT A BEVERAGE, 

But contains virtues truly extraordinary, which is indisputably prov?n by the g! •<:( 
publicity known, and remarkable cures it has made. 

•\Do not cast this aside with a look of or tempt. If ,. ou chan< se *o be one of the iu-kj 
few who ai\- never ailing, preserve his an i .1 and \i to your . i ■■ .iiiJ f em: * kfiajj 

kn w t 1 oaeans .-f li< . .iif 'ie v ; *■>•■ •* v .,1. rigoroi '.:.»■' H : ■ 1 _' 

OVER 200,000 BOtl LES 

Have 1 een dispo' •<] of u, the 1' i itic Coast during < lie past i wo years, aud every Man 
Woman or Chiff 1 h i< lia* tak^i them harp exiern i c< .1 the most cliarminj, results. 
Its aperitive. loJven*, din •<•.? "And io'i'i; proper u:n exceed any Medicin in the world 

Warrarled Purely Vegetable. 

Manufac'- red fro; tbenaS. herbs of California which ure known to *b* Fis.lkuui 



by 



tion vitli jEStots. Ba k etc., it is far ir up effectua 

.i>t^.i i) V lung and I. ib ".s espenai . id has - 

!'■!;> tr;i! remedy tin t >•. :i.-d i:.; '■ ■'■■ i ■-• a v d sfc 



dru^r i Innf?. It ha.- bt 
bringii.g to li^i:' thei 
du'ee. 

HITTERS o* vaj : on« kit..:- - -os-,. i p. Rnm • ■• W V .1 . . raa d. 
; : " addition off'Gentiaii <.r t i: -- : <■ ilower- ■ :; • i ■ public. 

: ia.ved behind h?rp • 1 d rinkini. a ma, until .; ■ si '(in» riis^u 

i iu- name. They are in fact fan y i inks diagiii- ••• • in-.'.,. Inriii hs y. ur 
<•• < (> ruin a:.> d destruction. "W> . niav advocatf - ■■'' *cn per:-: ae >r taini sgasi 
. - tb« means of leading many to a drunk;. id's gravfc, but <A these ii cers we i 
■ re. One battle will prove a b 'tnrguai u \v 1 their ; : r:ts than i lengthy 

$100 Will be Given for an Incurable Case, 
M. MCDONALD & CO., General Age; 

£*%r. SIap sMid S:»mw»tne Stre«*.l*, San FraactMSOi 



ill